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Astronomy Test 1

Why were ancient people unable to detect stellar parallax
They did not have the ability to measure very small angles
Why do we see essentially the same face of the moon at all times
Because the moon's rotational and orbital periods are equal
By the Late 1600's, science and technology in China fell behind Europe. Many historians beliee that this happened because
A culture of secrecy discouraged broad collaborative efforts
Ptolemy was important in the history of astronomy because he
Developed a model of the solar system that made sufficently accurate predictions of planetary positions to remain in use for many centuries
The age of the universe is
Between 10 billion and 16 billion years
In which of the following cases would you feel weightless
while falling from a roof
Which of the following is not a conserved quantity
About where is our solar system located within the Milky Way Galaxy
about two-thirds of the way from the center of the galaxy to the outskirts of the galactic disk
What is the Ecliptic
The suns's apparent path along the celestial sphere
all the following statments are true. Which one follows directly from Kepler's third law
Venus orbits the sun at a slower average speed then Merbury
Modern telescopes are capable of seeing bright galaxies up to about
10 billion light-years away
The amount of time between successive passes of the star Sirius across the meridian is
23 hours 56 minutes
Which of the following is an example in which you are traveling at constant speed but not at a consistent velocity
driving around in a circle at exactly 100 km/hr
What is the sun mainly made of
Hydrogen and Helium
What quantities does angular momentum depend on
mass, velocity, and radius
What do the structures of Stonehenge, the Templo Mayor, the Sun Dagger, and the Big Horn Medicine Wheel all have in common
They were all used by ancient peoples for astronomical observations
which of the following BEST describes the origin of ocean tides on Earth
Tides are caused by the difference in the force of gravity exerted by the moon across the sphere of the earth
Considering Einstein's famous equation, E=mc2, which of the following statements is TRUE
A small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy
the allowed shapes for orbits under the force of gravity are
elipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas
the average distance from Earth to the Sun
The force of gravity is an inverse square law. This means that, if you double the distance between two large masses, the gravitational force between them
weakens by a factor of 4
He discovered what we now call Newton's first law of motion
Roughly how many stars are there in the Milky Way Galaxy
100 million
According to the UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION, the force due to gravity is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects
He discovered that the orbits of planets are ellipses
Suppose an object is moving in a straight line at 50 mi/hr. According to Newtons first law of motion, the object will
continue to move in the same way until it is acted upon by a force
Which of the following correctly describes the MERIDIAN in your sky
a half-circle extending from your horizon due north, through your zenith, to you horizon due south
How did Eratosthenes estimate the size of the Earth in 240 BC
by comparing the maximum altitude of the Sun in two cities at different latitudes
Which of the following is the reason for the leap years
Earth year being a non-integer number of earth days
The controversial book of this famous person, published in 1543 (the year of his death), suggested that Earth and other planets orbit the Sun
When Copernicus first created his Sun-centered model of the universe, it did not lead to substantially better predictions of planetary positions than the Ptolemaic model. Why Not?
Copernicus used used perfect circles for the orbits of the planets
The Sun is rising in the east and will be on your meridian in 2 hours. What time is it?
10 AM
Momentum is defined as
mass times velocity
Why do we have seasons on Earth
As earth goes around the Sun and Earth's axis remains pointed toward Polaris, the Northern and Southern hemisphere alternately receive more and less direct sunlight
Which of the following is the reason for the solar day being longer then a sidereal day
The combined effect of the rotations of Earth and its orbit about the Sun
At approximately what time would a full moon be on your meridian
All of the following are true. Which of the following gives evidence that Earth's orbit is not perfectly circular
Both A and B

A) The Sun's angular size changes throughout the year

B) Earth's seasons are not exactly equal length
If your mass is 60 kg on earth, what wold your mass be on the Moon
60 kg
Radiative energy is
energy carried by light
At which lunar phase(s) are tides most pronounced (e.g. the highest high tides)
Both new and full Moons
According to what we now know from Newton's laws, which of the following BEST explains why Kepler's second law is true
A planet's angular momentum must be conserved as it moves around its orbit
Suppose the date is March 21 and the sun passes through your zenith at noon. Where are you
The Equator
Which scientists played a major role in overturning the ancient idea of an Earth-centered universe, and about when?
Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo; about 400 years ago
Which of the following best describes the modern definition of a constellation
a region of the celestial sphere
We describe a position on Earth's surface by stating its
latitude and longitude
What is a CIRCUMPOLAR star
a star that always remains above your horizon