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67 terms

chapter 1 and 2 test

STUDY
PLAY
T or F. affluenza increases mans ecological footprint and compromises environmental quality
true
T or F. decreasing population growth in developed countries will decrease resource consumption
false
T or F. the per capita ecological footprint is the availability of productive land and usable water to support the population with no consideration for environmental impact
true
T or F. private ownership is a possible solution to the problem of people exploiting a free-access resource but may not be practical for global common resources
true
T or F. developing countries have a high GDP which proposes a threat to their ability to become environmentally sustainable
false
T or F. output population control exemplifies the idea that "there is no way away"
true
T or F. developing countries have a significant negative affect on the environment because of the consumption per person and technological impact per unit of consumption
true
T or F. people in developing countries have a greater ecological footprint than those of developed countries
false
T or F. the 'tragedy of the commons' refers to lack of agricultural sustenance available for the common people in a country
false
T or F. natural capital degradation is a by-product of economic development
true
T or F. pollution cleanup is considered to be a short-term solution if population and consumption levels grow without corresponding improvement in population control technology
true
T or F. exponential growth of the worlds population has slowed, but slowed has not ended
true
T or F. using free-access resources slightly above their estimated sustainable yields will increase the availability of those resources
false
T or F. poverty does not affect population growth
false
T or F. countries experiencing affluenza allows them to obtain the resources they need from almost anywhere in the world without seeing the harmful environmental impacts of their high-consumption life-styles
true
an environmentally sustainable society
all of the above- manages its economy and population size, satisfies the needs of its people, protects the prospects of future generations, and meets the needs of its people without jeopardizing the needs of future generations
exponential growth
starts out slow and then becomes very rapid
the market value in dollars of good and services produced in a country for use within a year is the
gross domestic product
what is true generalization about developing countries?
they use only about 10% of the world's resources
economic growth
is measured in gross domestic product and purchasing power parity
what is not a renewable resource
oil
what is an example of reuse?
using a plastic butter tub to store leftovers
point source pollution includes all of the following except
runoff from agricultural land
resources that are called nonrenewable
are capable of economic depletion
economic growth is NOT (except question)
accomplished by minimizing the flow of matter and energy through an economy
nonpoint sources of pollution do not include
a smokestack from a power plant
output pollution control efforts can be ineffective because
all of these- they often transfer pollutants, cost, temporary measure
the three-factor model of environmental degradation and pollution do not include
the climate in which people live in
an unsustainable addiction to materialism that is driven by economic forces and causes large amounts of pollution and environmental degradation is best known as
affluenza
what revolution led to a shift from rural villages to more urban societies?
industrial-medical
the frontier environmental world-view encourages
resource exploitation
the ability of the environment to function indefinitely is known as
environmental sustainability
what is the best illustration of tragedy of the commons?
depletion of an aquifer by regional farmers
negative impacts associated with large-scale hydroelectric projects have been demonstrated in
james bay, quebec
the increase in the size of earths population in the last century has been dramatic. what are two major contributors to this increase?
industrial revolution and modern medicine
natural capital includes all of the following except (sunlight, air, water, soil, nutrients)
sunlight
when new information of ideas can disprove or overthrow a well-accepted scientific theory it is called
a paradigm shift
positive feedback loops
accelerate the change and are infinite
a thermostat keeping your house within a certain acceptable temperature range is an example of
homeostasis
which of the following does not illustrate a time delay? (smoker develops lung cancer, fox eats rabbit, CFCs depleat ozone, increase carbon dioxide enhances greenhouse effect)
fox eats rabbit
example of a situation where a long time delay results in environmental degradation include
depletion of ozone layer
when time delays allow a problem to build up until there is a fundamental shift in the behavior of a system, it is called
a tipping point
the community knew the effects of Chemical X alone and Chemical Z alone. they are released into the environment together and caused a massive fish kill. this could be
synergistic reaction
you are visiting a developing country. compared to a developed country, you would expect to find a
higher percentage of population growth
use of natural resource based on sustainable yield applies to
renewable resources
which of the following best describes environmental degradation?
letting agricultural runoff cause oxygen depletion and fish kills downstream
all non renewable resources can theoretically be
exhausted or depleted
you generally buy and eat microwave dinners. after dinner, cardboard tops and plastic trays remain. the least effective way to deal with this type of solid-waste problem would be to
collect the components and incinerate them so they dont take up landfill space
pollution cleanup efforts can be ineffective because
all of these- they often transfer pollutants, cost too much to reduce levels, they can be overwhelmed
root causes of environmental problems include
rapid population growth
sustainable development can be distinguished from economic development by its emphasis on
leaving resources in good condition for future generations
when a resource is economically depleted we can
all of these- recycle or reuse existing supplies, waste less, develop substitutes
what is representative of an environmental wisdom worldview?
energy and materials efficiency must continually be improved
in order to make one plastic soda bottle, approximatly 100 liters of crude oil are used, 100 kg of steel,. and 100 liters of water and other materials. this describes what situation?
the low material efficiency of plastic bottles
earth is essentially a closed system for
matter
all of the following are broken down by biological action except
lead and mercury
the least effective way to deal with nondegradable pollutants
remove them from contaminated air, water, or soil
nuclear changes are governed by
the law of conservation of matter and energy
which of the following comparisons of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion is correct?
nuclear fusion is harder to initiate than nuclear fission
earth is essentially an open system for
energy
FALSE STATEMENT-energy conversion results in higher quality energy
see front
does not apply to second law of energy
energy can neither be created nor destroyed
the matter and energy laws tell use that we can recycle
matter but not energy
a high-throughput economy sustains economic growth by
maximizing the rate of energy and matter sources used
FALSE STATEMENT- matter-recycling society becomes independent of high-quality matter because materials can continue to be recycled
see front
a low-throughput economy would not
create goods with a short life cycle to increase recycling
only about 10% of the potential energy of gasoline is used in power an automobile. the remaining energy is lost as low-quality heat. this is and example of
the second law of thermodynamics