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Vocabulary from Argumentative Essay Notes

Argumentation

the act or process of forming reasons, drawing conclusions, and applying them to a case in discussion

Refutation

the process of discrediting the arguments that oppose your thesis statement

Proponent

someone who argues in favor of something; advocate

Opponent

a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it

Counter Argument (Con)

point of statement in opposition to the argument being made in a written document or speech

Pro Argument (Pro)

point of statement that supports one's ideas and/or thesis

Rebuttal

A counterargument, especially in debate

Analyze

Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure. To identify parts, relationships, and interpret information to reach conclusions.

Bias

A preference that prevents one from being impartial

Claim

An assertion, usually supported by evidence

Evidence

Evidence is the specific pieces of information that support a claim. Evidence can take that form of facts, quotations, examples, statistics, or personal experiences among others.

Formal Writing Style

is writing that is free of slang, trite, expressions, abbreviations, symbols, email shortcut language, contractions, and the use of the personal pronoun"I." The writer does not speaking directly to the reader by using the word you. Formal style ensures that readers are able to read and understand what is written.

Organization

patterns are structures that show the relationship between ideas. Types of organizational patterns include Cause and Effect and Problem/Solution.

Primary Source

An original document containing the observations, ideas, and conclusions of an individual. It is a firsthand account presented by someone present or actively participating in the event. Examples include manuscripts, photographs, oral histories, and personal journals.

Secondary Source

A secondhand account of an event or a retelling of another person's observations written by someone who did not witness or actually participate in the events. Includes sources that combine, synthesize, and or interpret information from primary sources. Examples include encyclopedias, textbooks, and reviews.

Justify

Give valid reasons or evidence to support an answer or conclusion.

Synthesize

means to examine, closely study, and evaluate how individual text elements work together as a whole by combining the knowledge of one text element to the analysis of an additional element.

Tone

is an author's attitude toward a subject.

Pathos

Appeal to emotion

Ethos

Credibility

Logos

Appeal to logic

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