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Vocabulary from Argumentative Essay Notes


the act or process of forming reasons, drawing conclusions, and applying them to a case in discussion


the process of discrediting the arguments that oppose your thesis statement


someone who argues in favor of something; advocate


a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it

Counter Argument (Con)

point of statement in opposition to the argument being made in a written document or speech

Pro Argument (Pro)

point of statement that supports one's ideas and/or thesis


A counterargument, especially in debate


Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure. To identify parts, relationships, and interpret information to reach conclusions.


A preference that prevents one from being impartial


An assertion, usually supported by evidence


Evidence is the specific pieces of information that support a claim. Evidence can take that form of facts, quotations, examples, statistics, or personal experiences among others.

Formal Writing Style

is writing that is free of slang, trite, expressions, abbreviations, symbols, email shortcut language, contractions, and the use of the personal pronoun"I." The writer does not speaking directly to the reader by using the word you. Formal style ensures that readers are able to read and understand what is written.


patterns are structures that show the relationship between ideas. Types of organizational patterns include Cause and Effect and Problem/Solution.

Primary Source

An original document containing the observations, ideas, and conclusions of an individual. It is a firsthand account presented by someone present or actively participating in the event. Examples include manuscripts, photographs, oral histories, and personal journals.

Secondary Source

A secondhand account of an event or a retelling of another person's observations written by someone who did not witness or actually participate in the events. Includes sources that combine, synthesize, and or interpret information from primary sources. Examples include encyclopedias, textbooks, and reviews.


Give valid reasons or evidence to support an answer or conclusion.


means to examine, closely study, and evaluate how individual text elements work together as a whole by combining the knowledge of one text element to the analysis of an additional element.


is an author's attitude toward a subject.


Appeal to emotion




Appeal to logic

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