Biology Chapter 3
Terms in this set (56)
The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment
The area on earth where all life exist including land water in the atmosphere (the habitat for all living organisms)
Species, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes
In order to study interaction between organisms and their surroundings, what do biologists usually focus on?
A group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed to produce fertile offspring
Groups of individuals that belong to the same species that live in the same area
Many different species living together in a habitat
A community and all of the physical aspects of his habit
Physical aspects of a habitat
Living organisms in a habitat
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and some more dominant communities
The variety of organisms, their genetic differences, and the communities and ecosystems in which they occur
What contains the greatest biodiversity on Earth?
Animals, plants, protists, fungi, and bacteria
What does almost every ecosystem have?
What can be very difficult to see between ecosystems?
Observing, Experimenting, and Modeling
What are the ecological methods?
The flow of energy
What is the most important factor that determines what kinds of organisms live in an ecosystems can support?
What is the ultimate source of energy?
Organisms that first capture energy (uses the sun's energy to build molecules)
Organisms that consume other organisms for energy
The rate at which organic molecules are produced in an ecosystem by photosynthesis
The amount of energy available in an ecosystem
What does primary productivity determine?
The process where organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and food
By assigning organisms to trophic levels
How do ecologists study how energy moves through an ecosystem?
Levels showing how energy moves through an ecosystem
What is the first trophic level?
The simple path of energy through the trophic levels
A complicated realistic energy flow which connects groups of food chains
What is the second trophic level?
Eats plants or other primary producers
What is the third trophic level?
Eat other organisms
Eats only other animals. Secondary consumer
Eats both plants and animals. Secondary consumer
What is the fourth trophic level?
Carnivores that consume other carnivores
Detritivors and decomposers
What is the fifth trophic level?
Detritivor and decomposer
Obtain energy from organic waste and decomposing bodies
How much energy is lost during the transfer of energy in an ecosystem?
A diagram in which each trophic level is represented by a block
Herbivores take less energy to support
What takes less energy to support, herbivores or carnivores?
The dry weight of tissue and other organic matter found in an ecosystem
How much much of the biomass level above is contained in the level below?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
What elements are needed by all organisms?
The path of water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from a nonliving environment to living organisms that create closest cycles
Water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
What are the four most important substances that are cycled in ecosystems
3. evaporation and transpiration
What is the water cycle?
1. CO2 is given off
2. CO2 is taking in by photosynthesizing organisms
3. Organisms eat plants and give off CO2
What is the carbon cycle?
b. Combustion (burning of organic materials)
c. Volcanic irruption and erosion
What are the ways CO2 is given off into the ecosystem?
What is the nitrogen cycle?
The process of combining nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia
The conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas by soil bacteria
1. phosphorus and soil and rock dissolves in water
2. the roots of plants absorb the phosphate ions and build organic molecules
3. animals eat the plants and reuse the phosphorus
The phosphorus cycle
DNA and RNA
What molecules are phosphorus crucial for?
When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly
When an aquatic system receives a large input of limiting nutrients and there is an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers
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