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BIO 163 Final Exam Study Guide

BIO 163 Final Exam Study Guide @ DCCC
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ANATOMY- the study of the structure of the body
PHYSIOLOGY- the study of the functions of the body (The study of how the kidneys filter blood to produce urine.)
Chapter 1:

Define anatomy and physiology.
1: Atom
2: Molecule
3. Macromolecule
4: Organelles
5: Cells
6: Tissue
7: Organ
8: Organ System
9: Organism
List the levels of organization in the human body.
Stable internal environment. Factors in our external environment are constantly changing.
-Negative feedback to maintain hemostasis
Define homeostasis. What type of feedback mechanism is most commonly used by the body to maintain homeostasis?
FRONTAL PLANE: divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.

SAGITTAL PLANE: divides the body into right and left portions. Divide into equal parts. (A plane that would separate the two lungs.)

TRANSVERSE PLANE: divide the body into superior and inferior portions. (A plane that would separate the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.)

OBLIQUE PLANE: a plane at an angle
Describe the sections created by a frontal plane, sagittal plane, transverse plane, and oblique plane.
Atoms
Chapter 2:

•________ are the smallest unit of matter.
An atom consists of central portion called the nucleus, one or more electrons that constantly move around it also contains large particles called protons(+) and one or more neutrons (-). (Location of protons & neutrons in a nucleus)
Describe the structure of an atom.
IONIC: A type of bond where one atom gains an electron while another atom loses an electron.(Transferred between atoms)
covalent: bonds can be single, double, or triple; shared between atoms
HYDROGEN: weak-more of attraction
Describe the following bonds: ionic, covalent (single, double, triple), and hydrogen.
ACIDS: have pH less than 7.0, lower pH=more acidic the substance, release hydrogen ions (A substance with a pH of 6.7.)
BASES: bond hydrogen ions in water; higher pH=more basic the substance
Describe the properties of acids and bases.
-system that indicates the acidic or alkaline condition of a solution
lower pH=more acidic the substance
higher pH=more basic the substance
Describe the pH scale.
CARBOHYDRATES: building blocks are monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide
LIPIDS: building blocks are fatty acids & glycerol (The building blocks of glycogen.)
PROTEINS: building blocks are amino acids=amino acids are connected by peptide bonds (A compound made of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds.)
NUCLEIC ACIDS: control protein synthesis; building blocks are nucleotides.
The 4 groups of organic compounds are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. List the building blocks for each of these compounds.
regulates the movement of substances in and out of cell, allows cells to signal with other cells and adhere to other cells
Chapters 3 & 4:

•Describe the structure of the cell membrane.
responsible for making the cell's energy.
Describe the function of the mitochondria in the cell.
PASSIVE: do NOT require energy
ACTIVE: DO require energy
What is the main difference between passive and active transport mechanisms?
DIFFUSION: molecules move from an area of greater concentration to lesser (A type of passive transport in which substances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.)
FACILITATED: molecules moving from high to low concentration with help of membrane protein.
OSMOSIS: diffusion of water; water moves from an area of more water to an area of less water
FILTRATION: move from an area of higher pressure to an lower pressure
Describe the following types of passive transport: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and filtration.
PROPHASE: chromosomes are visible, centrioles pairs move to opposite ends of cell, nuclear envelope & nucleous disappear, spindle fiber forms from the centrioles

METAPHASE: chromosome line up in the center of the cell, spindle fibers attach to the centromere of each chromosome.

ANAPHASE: The phase of mitosis where the chromatids split and move towards opposite ends of the cell.

TELOPHASE: unwind into threadlike chromatin, nuclear envelope & nucleoli reappear, spindle breaks up
The phases of mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Describe the major events taking place during each of these phases.
ANABOLISM: larger molecules are constructed from smaller ones, requiring energy (The type of metabolism used when food is digested.)

CATABOLISM: larger molecules are broken down, releasing energy
Describe the 2 types of metabolism (anabolism and catabolism) and give an example of each.
protein synthesis where cellular DNA is copied into mRNA. -TRANSCRIPTION: manufacturing a complementary RNA from DNA

-TRANSLATION: assembly of an amino acid chain according to the sequence of base triplets in an mRNA molecule.
Transcription and translation occur during _________ synthesis. Describe the major events of these 2 steps.
-An epithelial tissue with 1 layer of flattened cells.
LOCATION: lines the air sacs (alveoli), forms walls of capillaries, lines the insides of blood & lymph vessels, covers the membranes that line body cavities. (covering organs, lining body cavities, lining hollow organs)
FUNCTION:sites of diffusion & filtration=substances can pass easily (protection)
Chapter 5:

Describe the structure of simple squamous epithelial tissue. List locations and functions of this tissue.
-A connective tissue packed with collagen and found in a tendon.
LOCATION: tendons & ligaments
FUNCTIONS: binding supporting, & protection
Describe the structure of dense connective tissue. List locations and functions of this tissue.
SKELETAL MUSCLE= voluntary (The only voluntary muscle tissue.)
SMOOTH MUSCLE= involuntary
CARDIAC MUSCLE= involuntary (An involuntary muscle tissue containing intercalated discs.)
List the 3 types of muscle tissue. Which of these is controlled voluntarily and which are controlled involuntarily?
STRUCTURE: composed of neurons & neuroglia
-found in the brain, spinal cord, & peripheral nerves
FUNCTION:The cells in nervous tissue that generate action potentials. Transmitting electrical impulses along cellular processes aka. axons.
Describe the structure of nervous tissue. List locations and functions of this tissue.
STRATUM CORNEUM: most superficial layer are dead & full of tough protein-top layer of epidermis
STRATUM BASALE: bottom layer of epidermis: deepest layer. (The layer of the epidermis with cells undergoing mitosis.) (The layer of the epidermis where melanocytes are found.)
Chapter 6:

Describe the differences between the stratum corneum (top layer of epidermis) and stratum basale (bottom layer of epidermis).
ECCRINE: most numerous, released through activity, coiled up tubes
APOCRINE: The type of sweat gland located in the armpits that becomes active at puberty. Secretion released into hair follicle & has a scent.
How do eccrine and apocrine sweat glands differ?
-The pigment responsible for protecting skin cells from damaging UV light.
Where is melanin produced? What is the function of melanin?
-Regulation of body temperature: response of blood vessels when body temperature drops below the set point.
Dermal blood vessels constrict & sweat glands become inactive
Explain the mechanism that occurs when body temperature drops below the set point (in a cold environment).
LACUNAE:Small chambers in compact bone that hold the osteocytes.
OSTEOCYTES: mature bone cell
OSTEONS: cylinder-shaped unit containing bone cells that surrounds a central canal. (The calcified extr cellular matrix of bone tissue.)
CENTRAL CANALS: in middle of osteons;
PERFORATING CANALS: Blood vessels and nerve fibers t ravel through these in bone tissue.
Chapter 7:

Describe the following microscopic components of compact bone: osteocytes, lacunae, osteons, central canals, perforating canals
FORMATION OF INTRAMEMBRANOUS: broad, flat bones of skull, Bones that form from membrane-like layers of connective tissues
FORMATION OF ENDOCHONDRAL: begin as hyline cartilage that develop into bone
Briefly describe the formation of intramembranous bone and the formation of endochondral bone.
OSTEOCYTES: is a bone cell
OSTEOCLASTS: cells that destroy;These are cells that break down
OSTEOBLAST: These are bone-forming cells.
Define the role osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts.
The EPIPHYSEAL LINE is located at the junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis (The epiphyseal line is a remnant of the EPIPHYSEAL PLATE, which is a cartilage plate that serves as a growth area for long bone lengthening.
The epiphyseal plate allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early adulthood. When growth stops, the epiphyseal plate cartilage is replaced with bone,
In a long bone, what is the difference between an epiphyseal line and an epiphyseal plate?
MYOFIBRILS: Threadlike bundles found in skeletal muscle fibers (cells).
-Made up of 2 protein filaments called myosin (thick) & actin (thin)
Chapter 8:

In the anatomy of a skeletal muscle, where are myofibrils found and what are they made up of?
-The neurotransmitter released at a neuromuscular junction.
-The gap between neuron and muscle cell that the neurotransmitter crosses at a neuromuscular junction
-Binds to an area of the motor end plate
List the events that occur at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) prior to muscle contraction.
-Electrically stimulated
-electrical impulse reaches sarcoplasmic reticulum inside muscle fiber & calcium released
-These filaments found in myofibrils have heads called cross-bridges.
-interactions then occur
During muscle contraction, how do actin and myosin interact?
The point where the biceps brachii attaches to the radius (movable end).
Define a skeletal muscle's origin and insertion.
DEPOLARIZATION: The event that occurs when sodium diffuses into the neuron, making the membrane potential more positive.
REPOLARIZATION: The event that occurs when potassium diffuses out of the neuron, bringing the membrane potential back to resting.
Chapter 9:

During an action potential, describe what occurs during depolarization and repolarization.
The part of the brain that maintains posture and coordinates skeletal muscle movements.
In the brain, what are the functions of the cerebellum?
-Has the ability to speed up your heart rate, constrict your blood vessels, & quicken the rate of your breathing
In the brain, what are the functions of the medulla oblongata?
The branch of the ANS that is considered "adrenergic" releases nor-epinephrine.
-They are sympathetic fibers of adrenergic
In the autonomic nervous system, nerve fibers that are "adrenergic" release what neurotransmitter? What set of fibers are adrenergic? (hint: sympathetic or parasympathetic, preganglionic or postganglionic)
COCHLEA
Chapter 10:

In the ear, where are the hearing receptors (hair cells) located?
IN TEMPORAL LOB
Where in the cerebrum are auditory impulses interpreted?
PHOTORECEPTORS: sensory receptors at the end of sensory neurons; stimulated by light energy
The photoreceptors in the retina.
In the eye, what are the photoreceptors, and where are they located?
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Chapter 11:

Hormone levels are mostly controlled by what mechanism?
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands
-PITUITARY gland that secretes LH (luteinizing hormone) and the target of LH in the female's body.
What 2 hormones released from the anterior pituitary gland target the testes and ovaries?
-releasing calcium into the blood and raises the blood calcium level, stimulates osteoclast activity; increase blood calcium
Describe the actions of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin.
PANCREAS produces insulin & glucagon (The endocrine gland that secretes insulin.)
-Insulin: decreases blood sugar EX. I've skipped breakfast and lunch, so my pancreas is releasing large amounts of this hormone.
-Glucagon: increases blood sugar
What gland produces insulin and glucagon? Describe the actions of these hormones.
shaped bi-concave discs;Formed elements that are shaped like biconcave discs.
Chapter 12:

Describe the shape of erythrocytes (red blood cells).
GRANULOCYTES: neutrophils, esinophils, basophils (3 total)
AGRANULOCYTES: monocytes, lymphocytes (2 total)
List the leukocytes (white blood cells) that are granulocytes and those that are agranulocytes.
MEGAKARYOCYTES: Formed elements OR platelets that are actually fragments of larger cells
Platelets are not cells; they are fragments of larger cells called ______________.
The plasma protein that increases the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood.
What is the function of the plasma protein albumin?
-The circuit that delivers oxygen to cells and picks up carbon dioxide.
PULMONARY CIRCUIT: sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen & unload carbon dioxide
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT: sends oxygenated blood & nutrients to all body cells & removes wastes (carbon dioxide)
Chapter 13:

Explain the role of the pulmonary and systemic circuit.
1.) cardiac impulses originate in the SA (sinoatrial) node=called the "pacemaker" of the heart
2.) cardiac impulses then travel to the AV (atroventricular) node located in the bottom of the right atrium near the septum between the right & left atria.
3.) impulses leave the AV node & pass into the branches of the AV bundle aka. bundle of His=located in the inter ventricular septum
4.) bundle branches then become Purkinje Fibers=located in the walls of the ventricles= last component in the cardiac conduction system.
List the parts of the cardiac conduction system in the order in which the electrical impulse travels through them.
-Parasympathetic fibers release ACETYCHOLINE neurotransmitter which DECREASES the heart rate.
-Sympathetic fibers release NOREPINEPHRINE nuerotransmitter which INCREASES the heart rate.
Describe the effect that sympathetic fibers and parasympathetic fibers have on heart rate. What neurotransmitters do they release that cause these effects?
ARTERIES: carry blood away from heart to arterioles, under highest pressure, 3 layers, thick & strong, no valves, carry highly oxgenated blood, stimulated by sympatheic impulses.
VEINS:carry blood from venules return to the heart, under lowest pressure, 3 layers, thinner, many venules (valves), carry poorly oxgenated blood, controlled by sympatheic impulses.
List some main differences between arteries and veins.
Once tissue fluid moves into a lymphatic capillary it takes on this name called LYMPH
Chapter 14:

What mechanism drives the formation of lymph?
The role of a macrophage inside of a lymph node is to engulf harmful particles.
What is the role of macrophages inside of lymph nodes?
The type of immune response in which activated T cells interact with antigen-bearing cells.
What type of immune response do T lymphocytes (T cells) initiate?
NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY: The type of immunity you may have received as a newborn through your mother's breast milk
ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY: The type of immunity you receive if given the chicken pox vaccine; exposure to a vaccine containing weakened or dead pathogens
What is the difference between naturally acquired active immunity and artificially acquired active immunity? Provide an example of each.
* The start and end of the alimentary canal.
MOUTH, PHARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINE, LARGE INTESTINE, RECTUM & ANUS
Chapter 15:

List the organs of the alimentary canal.
--ABSORPTION OF WATER & ELECTROLYTES REMAINING IN CHYME
-FORMATION & STORAGE OF FECES
In this digestive organ, no digestion takes place, but vitamins are synthesized here by bacteria, and feces are formed.
What are the functions of the large intestine?
PARIETAL CELLS: HYDROCHLORIC ACID & INTRISTIC secretes the stomach lining
CHIEF CELLS: PEPSIN is the secretion of the chief cells in the stomach.
What do the chief and parietal cells of the stomach lining secrete?
- production of bile, carbohydrate-lipid-protein metabolism, storage, blood filtering, detoxification.
List all functions of the liver.
The alveoli are lined with this epithelial tissue called SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAM
Chapter 16:

What type of tissue makes up the lining of the alveoli?
During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, leading to an increase in the volume of the lungs & the pressure in the lungs/aveoli decreases. External intercostals contract, moving the ribs upward & outward.
Describe the events of inspiration.
If the amount of carbon dioxide if your blood increases, then blood will become acidic (pH falls) and your breathing rate will increased.
What would happen to one's breathing rate if the amount of carbon dioxide increased? Decreased?
DIFFUSION
What process drives the exchange of gases (hint: think "higher" to "lower")?
1.) Glomerulus 2.) Glomerulus capsule 3.) Proximal convoluted tubule 4.) Descending limb of nephron loop 5.) Distal convoluted tubule 6.) Collecting duct
Chapter 17:

List the parts of the nephron tubule in the correct order from beginning to end.
Blood enters the glomerulus from this blood vessel called AFFERENT.
Blood exit or leaves the glomerulus from this blood vessel called EFFERENT
Blood enters the glomerulus of the nephron through the ________ arteriole. Blood leaves the glomerulus through the _______ arteriole and then into the ___________ capillaries.
Water and sodium are typically reabsorbed in this part of the nephron called PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE.
Where does the reabsorption of sodium and water primarily take place during urine formation?
-Substances move from the blood in the peritubular capillaries into the tubule.
During urine formation, what occurs during tubular secretion?
-through URINE
Chapter 18:

How is most water lost?
3 main ways to regulate pH of body fluids: 1.) Chemical buffer systems 2.) Respiratory center in the brainstem 3.) Nephrons in the kidneys
What role do the kidneys play in controlling the pH of body fluids?
The end result of spermatogenesis, starting with 1 primary spermatocyte begins at puberty and involves in a special type of cell division called mitosis ending with a sperm cell.
Chapter 19:

What is the end result of spermatogenesis?
-enlargement of reproductive organs, increased growth of body hair, deepening of the voice, thickening of the skin, increased muscular growth, broadening of shoulders, narrowing of waist, thickening & strengthening of bones.
Explain the effects of testosterone in the male.
lower 3trd of the uterus opening and or surrounds the opening in which the uterus opens to the vagina
What is the cervix?
-A decrease in this hormone leads to the production of menstrual flow in the female is called LH-lutenizing hormone.
This causes a chemical reaction in the pituitary gland and stimulates the production of FSH and LH.
Describe the hormonal changes that trigger menstrual flow in the female reproductive cycle.
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