Terms in this set (153)
___________ is the process by which attitudes and behaviors are influenced as a result of receiving a message.
According the Elaboration Likelihood Model, a peripheral cue is:
A cue or message (such as using a fear appeal), which may affect the audience's motivation to elaborate or process the message during the presentation.
Which of the following statements best describe the suggestions for developing Main Points in your speech?
-Limit each main point to one idea.
-Focus each main point on developing the thesis statement.
-Give all main points balanced treatment
Describing your experience, qualifications, and citing scholarly sources are ways to increase your __________ with the audience.
The audience's perception of closeness and interaction with the speaker is called________.
Which of the following would be most likely to result in long-term persuasion?
A strong argument with high relevance to the audience.
Of the communication elements listed in the SMCRE Model, which is the one over which the speaker has the MOST control?
The process of receiving, attending to, and assigning meaning to aural and visual stimuli:
If an audience is made up of people from a Collectivist culture, they will be more likely to:
Value group harmony
According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, the two main determinants of a listener's willingness to engage in elaborating on the message are __________and _________.
motivation and ability pg. 61
Which of the following is the name for vocal fillers such as "um, ah, and" that become distracting when used repetitively by the speaker?
If you imagine yourself delivering a successful presentation, you are engaging in ___________.
Which of the following BEST describes extemporaneous delivery?
A conversational voice using planned, practiced, and interactive delivery.
According to the Inoculation Theory, your message will be more persuasive with most audiences if you:
Identify the specific counter-arguments and directly refute them (two-sided refutation).
Primary sources are best defined as:
Information that comes from the original author.
Which statement best describes the effects of orally citing sources during your speech?
Oral citations have the potential to increase your credibility with the audience.
Which of the following BEST describes the appropriate steps for developing content of an effective speech?
Analyze the audience and occasion, then plan and organize your message.
Organizational cues that alert the audience that you are moving from point to point are called_________.
When using PowerPoint in an extemporaneous presentation, occasionally using the "B" key to blank the screen is recommended:
When you want to create immediacy with the audience.
Which of the following would NOT be recommended for writing text on a PowerPoint slide used in an extemporaneous presentation?
Use complete sentences.
An exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages between two or more people
A collection of interdependent parts arranged so that a change in one produces corresponding changes in the remaining parts
A relationship in which things have a reciprocal influence on each other.
Audience member responses both verbal and nonverbal to a speaker
The meaning produced by communication
The essential meaning of what a speaker wants to convey
The combined impact of the verbal and nonverbal components of a message as it is conveyed
Relational Components pg.11
Something that stands for or suggests something else by reason or relationship or association.
The process by which ideas are translated into a code that can be understood by the receiver.
The process by which a code is translated back into ideas
The physical medium through which communication occurs
The process by which we give meaning to our experiences
The primary function of a speech. The three commonly agreed upon general purposes are to inform, persuade, and to entertain
General purpose pg.14
The degree to which an audience trusts and believes in a speaker.
The goal or objective a speaker hopes to achieve in speaking to a particular audience.
Specific Purpose pg.16
A single declarative sentence that focuses the audience's attention on the central point of a speech.
Thesis Statement pg.16
The creative process by which the substance of a speech is generated
A forecast of the main points in a speech
The key ideas that support the thesis statement of a speech
Main Points pg.21
Transitional statements that bridge main points.
A mode of presentation that combines careful preparation with spontaneous speaking. The speaker generally uses brief notes rather than a full manuscript or outline.
Extemporaneous Delivery pg.26
Fear and avoidance of communication with other people
Communication apprehension pg.38
Feelings of anxiety associated with communication in nearly all situations
Generalized anxiety pg.39
The study of the biological bases of human communication
Combinations od inherited tendencies that may exert influencies on our behavioral preferences
Genetic contributors pg.39
Factors within our environment that contribute to our fear of speaking
Environmental Reinforcers pg.39
A person feels unable to predict whether a behavior will result in a reward or punishment, therefore he or she avoids the behavior all together if possible.
Learned Helplessness pg.40
Cultures the disciurage individual assertiveness and stress group harmony.
Collectivistic cultures pg.41
Societies that stress individual assertiveness over group harmony.
Individualistic Cultures pg.41
Silent communication with oneself that influence one's perceptions of reality.
Destructive self cristism
Negative self-talk pg 44
The use of positive coping statements instead of negative self-talk
Positive self-talk pg.44
The process of visualizing yourself having a successful communication experience.
Proactive immagination pg.44
The study of body movement and facial expressions
Communication takes place wherever human s are together because people tend to look for meaning, even when the message is not deliberately sent.
The process of communication is ethically neutral
The receiver's preception of a sender's competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill; credibility.
The person initiating the communication
The message the speaker intends to send
The means through which the message is sent
The audience to whom the message is delivered
The situation or context in which the transaction takes place
The degree to which a receiver scrutinizes a message
Receivers mentally elaborate on the elements of your message and carefully scrutinize your arguments and evidence
central route processing pg.60
Receivers give brief attention to the message without elaborated thought
peripheral route processing pg.60
The literal or explict definition of a word
denotative meaning pg.73
The implied meaning of a word based upon its use within a given context
connotative meaning pg.73
The process of recieving, attending to, and assigning meaning to aural and visual stimuli.
A natural context of persons, events, objects, relations, and an exigence which strongly invites utterance
rhetorical situation pg.95
Those ends that we can reasonably expect to achieve in the near term
short-term goals pg.96
Those ends that we can hope to achieve only over extended period of time.
long-term goals pg.96
Listeners who chose to hear a speaker
voluntary audience pg.98
Listeners who have no choice about hearing a speech
captive audience pg.98
The cutural demographic, and individual chracteristics that vary among audience members.
Audience diversity pg.98
Bsic vital data regarding any population
Differences among people in terms of beliefs, customs, and values- in a sense their worldview
cultural diversity pg.100
Variations among people in terms of such attributes as socioeconomic background and level of education.
demographic diversity pg.106
Social grouping and economic class to which people belong
socioeconomic status pg.109
How individuals in an audience differ in terms of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values, motives, expectations, and needs
Individual diversity pg.112
An assertion about the properties or chaacteristics of an object
Primitive and zero censensus beliefs that are highly resistant to change
core beliefs pg.113
Beliefs based directly or indirectly on authority
central beliefs pg.113
The least central type of beliefs, the easiest to change
peripheral beliefs pg.113
A learned predisposition to response in a consistently favorable ot unfavorable manner with given respect to a given object
Our most enduring beliefs about right and wrong
Basic human needs which must be satisfied before higher-order needs can be met. They include the need for food, air, water, physical safety belongingness and love and self esteem and social esteem
deficiency needs pg.118
Higher order human needs, which can be satisfied only after deficency needs have been met. They incluce self-actualiztion knowledge, understanding, and aesthetic needs.
growth needs pg.118
A limitation on choices in a rhetorical situation
The process of finding and evaluating supporting materials
Uniform Resources Locator: the address for websites such as www.mmhe.com
Websites freely accesible to all users over the internet
Surface web pg.136
(Proprietary Internet) Web sites accessible over the Internet only to authorized users and often at a cost.
deep web pg.136
The hawaiian word for "quick". A Web site that allows users to edit consent easily and quickly- for example wikipedia.
Information sources that rely on the sources rather than gathering information firsthand.
secondary source pg.139
Original sources of information.
primary sources pg.139
An audio broadcast that has been converted to a digital format, such as MP3 for playback by a digital music player or computer
A video clip that is similar to a podcast
A syndication format that aggregates updates to various news sites or blogs and transmits them to users
RSS (really simple syndication) pg.140
A website contains dated entries in reverse chronological order. They can range from serious commentary by experts to "ranting and raving" by people with no particular qualifications.
Blog (short for web log) pg.142
Sometimes that is verifiable as true
A jugdement by someone that is subject to dispute
A social networking service that enables users to send and read messages of up to 140 characters
A word in the abstract, title, subject heading, or text of an entry that can be used to search an electronic database.
Key word pg.144
A standard word or phrase used by libraries to catalog books or other publications
Subject heading pg.144
A computerized database library holdings
Online catalog pg.145
Terms, such as and, or, and not, used to narrow or broade a computerized search of two or more related terms.
Boolean operators pg.145
A listing of sources of information- usually in newspapers, journals, and magazines- alphabetically by topic.
A summary of an article or a report
The tendency for people to remember and be most influenced by what they hear either at the beginning or at the ending a speech
Primary recency effect pg.174
A brief statement embodying a principle or lesson
A short, commonly used saying that expresses a well-known truth, often with a religious or moral aspect
A question that the audience isn't expected to answer out loud
Rhetorical question pg.180
A request by the speaker, usually at the end of a speech, for the audience to take specific actions to fulfill the speech's purpose
Call to action pg.189
A five-step organizational scheme, developed by speech professor Alan Monroe, involving (1) attention, (2) need, (3) satisfaction, (4) visualization, and (5) action
Monroe's motivated sequence pg.196
A pattern of organization that analyzes a problem in terms of (1) harm, (2) significance, and (3) cause, and proposes a solution that is (1) described , (2) feasible, and (3) advantageous
Problem- solution pattern pg.197
A four-point pattern of organization that is based on (1) ill, (2) blame, (3) cure, and (4) cost
Stock issues pattern pg.197
A pattern of organization that moves from cause to effect or from effect to cause
Casual pattern pg.197
A pattern of organiation that involves (1) introducing the topic and thesis statement, (2) presenting arguments and evidence supporting the thesis, (3) acknowledging arguments against the thesis, (4) refuting these arguments, (5) restating arguments and evidence supporting the thesis, and presenting the conclusion
Two- sided refutation pattern pg.198
A pattern of organization based on the idea that things can be better even if they are not currently harmful.
Comparative advantages pattern pg.199
Main points are in alphabetical order or spell out a common word
Alphabetical pattern pg.199
A pattern of organization based on natural divisions in the subject matter
Categorical pattern pg.200
A pattern of organization based on physical space or geography
Spatial pattern pg.201
A pattern or organization based on chronology or a sequence of events
Time pattern pg.202
A pattern of organization in which the entire body of the speech is the telling of a story
Extended narrative pattern pg.202
A pattern of organization in which the basic theme, often represented by a phrase, is repeated again and again, much like a wave cresting, receding, and then cresting again.
Wave pattern pg.204
A pattern of organization that employs repetition of points, with the points growing in intensity as the speech builds to its conclusion
Spiral pattern pg.204
A pattern of organization in which all of the points are of equal importance and can be presented in any order to support the common theme
Star pattern pg.205
An idea that supports a main point
An idea that supports a subpoint
Supporting point pg.210
A detailed outline used in speech preparation, but not, in most cases, in the actual presentation
Formal outline pg.211
The rule- governed word system we use to verbally communicate
A person's assumption that the meaning he or she gives to word or a phrase is its exclusive meaning
Receiver- centric pg.223
The idea that what people perceive is influenced by the language in which they think and speak
Linguistic relativity hypothesis pg.225
Language that helps people believe that they not only have a stake in matters of societal importance but also have power in this regard
Inclusive language pg.230
Language that diminishes people's importance and makes them appear to be less powerful, less significant, and less worthwhile than they are
Marginalizing language pg.230
Language that defines people exclusively on the basis of a single sttribute such as race, ethinicity, biological sex, or disability
Totalizing language pg.230
Language including terms such as housewife and fireman that sterotype gender roles
Sexist Language pg.231
Language that reduces the psychological distance that separates speakers and the audience members and stresses that speech is transaction
Immediate language pg.231
Words that emphasize rather than undermine audience perceptions of a speaker's competence
Credibility- enhancing language pg.234
Words and phrases that erode the impact of what a speaker says in a speech
Verbal qualifiers pg.234
An extended metaphor or similie
The use of opposites light-dark
The degree to which words and phrases deviate from neutral
Language intensity pg.240
A mode of presentation that involves writing out a speech completely and reading it to the audience
Manuscript delivery pg.250
A spontaneous unrehearsed mode of presenting a speech
Impromptu delivery pg.252
A wordless, but not silent system of communication
Nonverbal behavior pg.257
The physical surroundings as you speak and the physical distance separating you from your audience
The area of an audience in which speaker abd audience members can make eye contact
Zone of interaction pg.260
Nonverbal behaviors used to cope with nervousness for example touching oneself
Self-adapting benhaviors pg.273
A nonverbal symbol that can be substituted for a word
Taking the initiative, anticipating, and controlling variables that will affect speech delivery
Proactive delivery pg.278