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90 terms

Final

CH. 10-14,16
STUDY
PLAY
Under the bounded rationality model of problem solving and decision making
managers are comfortable making decisions without identifying all options
The cognitive style that exhibits a preference for data and a detailed, objective approach to decision making is:
sensing/thinking
The fourth step in the Z model of problem solving is
impact analysis
step one of the Z model corresponds to the ____ cognitive style
sensing/thinking
An incorrect assumption about the use of intuition in making decisions is that
it is seldom a positive force
Generally NOT associated with creative abilities or creativity
concern for failure
an organization could increase creativity by doing what?
eliminate office walls and cubicles
Research on the impact of moods on tasks that involve considerable cognitive demands suggests
Negative moods result in better performance
Responsive creativity is
responding to a problem that is presented to you by others because it is part of your job.
An approach to minimize groupthink is to
re-examine the preferred solution even if consensus has been reacheed
A group approach to decision making tends to be appropriate when
employees may be in conflict over preferred solutions
The social comparison approach and persuasive arguments view have both been used to explain
group polirization
Recent research examining the effects of cultural diversity on decision making has found that when individuals in a group are racially dissimilar
they arrive at better decisions than racially similar groups
Intuition would be amajor part of the input for a manager making what kind of decision
nonprogrammed
The rational model of decision making assumes
That the decision maker can calculate the probability of success for alternatives
Kanter's focus on power is in terms of one's:
ability to exercise power and do things for others, particularly persons in need
When both men and women witness political behavior and the agent is of their gender and the target is of the opposite gender, evidence suggests:
men and women will view the political behavior more positively
As a management trainee, you are assigned to a mentor and gain considerable insight into the nature of management and how to behave in different managerial situations. The relationship you have with the mentor is based on _____ power.
referent
If a manager asks an employee to purchase a gift for his wife, the employee would think this request
falls outside his zone of indifference
To be considered ethical, power related behavior must meet
the distributive justice criterion
the utilitarian criterion
the individual rights criterion
Research on influence tactics indicates that _____ tactics are least used.
exchange
Korda's symbols of power focus on status or:
a person's relative standing in a group based on prestige and having other people defer to him or her
If your boss exhibits a participatory style of managing, an appropriate influence tactic for you is
coalition building
When a firm is preparing for bankruptcy, the accountants as a group may become unduly powerful because of
their nonsubstitutability
Which base of power has the strongest relationship with performance and satisfaction?
expert
Self-management or the highest level of empowerment represents
decision-making control over job content and job context
Which of the following influence tactics would likely have the most negative effect in your attempt to influence a decision with respect to promotability
ingratiation
Former Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich tried to sell President Barack Obama's Senate seat for money. It was also reported he attempted to trade the seat for money, ambassadorships, and even a $150,000 salary for his wife. This is an example of the use of:
personal power
Which of the following set of dimensions comprise the essence of empowerment
meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact
McClelland has found that the best managers are those who have
a high need for social power and a low need for affiliation
When considering the type of leadership style exhibited according to the behavioral theories, which of the following is most accurate?
Situational characteristics are not important because the leader's style does not vary over different situations.
Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid identifies "authority-compliance" management with the folowing charcteristics:
employees abide with strict requirements and considerable daily pressure to meet schedules and quotas
Fiedler's "Contingency Theory of Leadership" proposed that if you found yourself managing a situation where you had good relationships with employees, the task you had been assigned was well-structured, and you were also able to exercise strong position power; then in such a situation your leadership behavior and management style should be:
task-oriented
According to Fiedler, the effectiveness of leaders is dependent on
the favorableness of their situation
The variables used to determine the most appropriate leader behavior in House's path-goal theory are:
follower characteristics and task characteristics
In the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model, the leadership style most appropriate with very mature followers is:
delegating
The telling style of leadership in the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model entails:
low concern of relationships and strong initiating structure
Kotter suggests that leadership and management:
are two distinct, yet complementary systems of action in organizations
When comparing autocratic leadership style to democratic leadership style, democratic leaders
do not closely supervise and allow employee initiative and decision making
According to the Michigan studies on leadership, a work environment characterized by constant influence attempts on the part of the leader through closer supervision or written rules and regulations is likely the result of:
production-oriented style
The Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model helps leaders and managers know:
when to have employees participate in the decision-making process
In the Hershey-Blanchard situational leadership model, maturity is determined by:
a follower's ability and willingness to accept responsibility for completing work
A multidimensional construct that includes transformational, charismatic, or transactional leadership as the situation might demand is known as:
Authentic Leadership
In contrast to leadership, the topic of followership has
not been extensively researched
Followers who tend to be passive but capable of independent and critical thinking are
alienated
When an intrapersonal conflict forces us to choose between right and right, the situation is called a
defining moment
Long lasting and difficult conflicts between individuals usually stem from differences in:
perceptions
The behavioral tendencies associated with an equal versus equal power relationship is
the tendency to compete
In research on styles of conflict management, the _____ style was least effective.
avoiding
Which of the following is NOT a structural cause of conflict in organizations?
skills and abilities
You have a problem with your computer, so you call the company that made it. They inform you that the problem is caused by software, so you call the software division and they tell you it's the hardware. This is an example of:
jurisdictional ambiguities
Estimates show that managers spend what percent of their time dealing with conflict?
21%
When contrasting American and Japanese business cultures, Americans tend to _____, whereas the Japanese prefer _____.
be individualistic; collectivism
Person-role conflicts typically stem from differences in _____ between the focal person and the organization or work group.
values
Suppose a manager receives counseling from her department head that she needs to socialize less with the nonmanagement employees. She also is told by her project manager that she needs to be a better team member, and that she can accomplish this by socializing more with the other nonmanagement team members. This is an example of:
intrarole conflict
When two departments are in conflict but are also facing a common threat, the _____ style of conflict management is most appropriate.
collaborating
Two of your employees are having a disagreement over the scheduling of a production run. An appropriate way to resolve this conflict is:
negotiate with the parties
To avoid dysfunctional conflicts in virtual teams, a manager should:
make sure their tasks fit their methods of interacting
When a child gets sick at school, the parent often must leave work to care for the child. This would be an example of:
interrole conflict
Which of the following defense mechanisms takes the form of aggressive behavior directed at someone else who is not the source of the conflict?
displacement
A shortcoming of work simplification is that:
it undervalues the human capacity for thought and creativity
Both job enrichment and job enlargement were intended to increase:
job satisfaction for employees
Enlarging a job is most closely associated with which of the following core job characteristics?
skill variety
The anthropocentric job design approach places:
human considerations at the center of job design decision
In the design of jobs and work organizations, Germans:
value hierarchy and authority relationships
A job is defined as:
specific work and task activities
Job enlargement was developed to overcome the problem of:
boredom associated with scientific management's approach to jobs
The problem of overspecialization has been addressed by:
increasing the variety in jobs
A significant difference between job enlargement and job enrichment is that:
enrichment vertically loads a job whereas enlargement horizontally loads a job
A problem with job enrichment as a strategy for work design is:
that it is based on an oversimplified motivational theory
The degree to which a job entails completion of a whole task or complete sequence of tasks is:
task identity
People whose jobs are high on the five core dimensions are generally:
more motivated, more satisfied, and more productive than others
Ergonomics is used in the _____ approach to job designs
perceptual/motor
The sociotechnical system gives:
equal attention to technical and social considerations in job design
Employees may experience technostress when
electronic performance monitoring is used
The key to understanding culture through artifacts lies in:
figuring out what they mean
Strong cultures facilitate performance in all of the following ways except:
insulating employees and focusing their attention away from the organization's environment
An adaptive organizational culture is one that:
encourages confidence and risk taking among employees
Corporate leaders can greatly influence and shape organizational culture through:
consistently demonstrating corporate values in measuring and rewarding employee performance
Anticipatory socialization takes place through
realistic job previews
Employee performance expectations are normally made known through
communication of role demands
Changing an organization's culture is difficult because:
assumptions are deeply ingrained, even below consciousness
Which of the following include the three levels of culture identified by Edgar Schein?
artifacts, values, and basic assumptions
An early fall semester convocation on your campus can be considered a:
rite of renewal
An example of a rite of enhancement is a/an:
employee of the month award
Assumptions are:
deeply held beliefs that guide behavior of organized members
The strong culture perspective states that organizations with strong cultures:
perform better than other organizations
What perspective of culture would be best for a company that wants to compete globally?
the adaptation perspective
Reality shock typically occurs during which stage in the adjustment of a newcomer to an organization?
encounter
The primary purpose of socialization is the:
transmission of core values to new organization members