Religious Empires, Middle Ages, and Renaissance
Terms in this set (51)
Grew from the eastern part of the former Roman Empire, lasting until 1453.
Wealthy and capital city of the Byzantine Empire, now known as Istanbul Turkey.
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of the former Roman Empire through building projects and unified laws.
Kept ancient Roman legal principles alive, established by Justinian in the Byzantine Empire.
Most significant architectural contribution of the Byzantine Empire (Holy Wisdom).
Formal split within a religious organization; any division or separation of a group.
Expelling someone from the church.
United much of Europe and forced the people to become Christians, crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope.
Scandinavian sailers and traders who raided Western Europe during the early Middle Ages.
William the Conqueror
French nobleman who won control of England and introduced feudalism.
Legal system in which court decisions establish legal principles and rules of law.
Written legal agreement signed in 1215 that limited the English monarch's power.
Body of representatives that makes laws for England.
St. Thomas Aquinas
Developed five natural arguments to prove the existence of God, merging science and religion.
Three Fields System
System of farming in which land is divided in 3, 2 growing while one recharges.
A section of central Italy governed by the Pope.
A long series of wars between Christians and Muslims.
Monotheistic religion based on the belief in on God: Allah. Muhammad was Allah's prophet.
City in Arabia; birthplace of Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
The most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca.
The holy book of Islam.
Code of law derived from the Quran and from the teachings of Mohammed.
The Muslim word for "struggle" especially when trying to follow the will of Allah.
Muslim leader who caused the fall of Jerusalem & defeated the French & English in the 3rd Crusade.
Middle Ages/Dark Ages
Social system that developed during the Middle Ages in which land and protection were individually exchanged.
A person who controlled land and could therefore grant land to vassals.
Large Middle Aged farms and villages, ruled by a Lord.
Land granted by a lord in exchange for loyalty and service.
Received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services.
A church tax or payment of one-tenth of a family's income to a church.
Mounted warriors who fought to ensure feudal loyalties in exchange for fiefs (land).
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages.
Gave their land to a lord and offered their servitude in return for protection from the lord.
Has authority to perform religious services.
Government of the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe.
The calamitous practice of kings investing or empowering Clergy members.
Chrisitian ceremonies in which graces to wards off the consequences of sin (often in exchange for Lay Investiture of money).
Wanted to exercise authority in Europe, believed you will go to Hell if you don't follow the papacy.
Deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people.
Hundred Years War
England vs. France towards the end of the Middle Ages, fought over feudal rights and resulted in larger nation states (ended Feudalism).
Weapon that could puncture armor of Knights. Fast & inexpensive (100+ archers for the cost of 1 knight).
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance.
"Rebirth". following the Middle Ages, centered on the "revival" of Greek and Roman interests (art, literature, history, philosophy).
Movement against the Roman Catholic Church that resulted in the creation of Protestant Churches.
Inventor of the printing press that help spread the 95 Thesis as well as other Renaissance ideas.
Led religious reform in Germany, denied Papal power and absolutist rule in his "95 Thesis".
Doctrine that God has already chosen who will be saved & that people have no choice in the matter.
A Christian who protested against the Catholic Church.
Members of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther.