Chapter 9 psychology
Learning principles and application
The type of modeling that occurs when a person watches someone perform a task and is later able to complete the same task known as____
A child is saying "Daddy" only to his father is an example of...
A partial schedule of reinforcement ____ the likelihood that the desired responses will be more stable and long-lasting.
After a behavioral problem is identified, a ____ is set up to identify a reinforcer that is dependent upon the completion of a less desirable, but necessary, task.
In the study of ____ researchers seek to discover how voluntary behaviors are affected by their consequences.
Receiving points that can be cashed in for prizes is an example of a ____ system of learning.
escape conditioning conditioning
A child cries uncontrollably when the lights are turned out. The parent begins to leave the light on until the child has fallen asleep. This is an example of ____.
A dog who assists a hearing-impaired person is trained to react to the telephone ringing. If the dog also reacts to a tone from the person's microwave, the dog is exhibiting___.
Individuals who believe that no matter what they do their actions make no difference are exhibiting ...
A subject responding to a second stimulus similar to the original CS is an example of ...
On a ___ schedule, reinforcement is available at predetermined times.
A type of modeling, ___, occurs when a person sees someone else get away with an aggressive act without any apparent consequences and later performs the same act.
The reinforcement process used to train an animal to do something it has never done before and would never do on its own is known as ____.
An unpleasant consequence that decreases the frequency of the response that produced it is called ....
A ___ program emphasizes people taking responsibility for setting up personal systems of rewards and punishments to shape their own thoughts and actions.
The psychologist ___ demonstrated conditioning on a human infant.
With ___ material is broken down into simple units and the student is given positive reinforcement.
B.F. Skinner is the psychologist most closely associated with ____ conditioning.
An individual watches a friend send an E-mail message. When the individual is later able to send an E-mail message, the type of learning exhibited is ....
In classical conditioning, the best results occur when the conditioned stimulus is presented....
Previously learned responses are put together in a ____.
Using ___ stimuli to change behavior may result in unwanted side effects such as rage or aggression.
an automatic response
In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus elicits ....
In human society, money serves asa a ....
The psychologist ____ reasoned that learning involved mental processes, as well as mechanical processes.
In order for the responses to be long-lasting once they been learned, a ___- of reinforcement is better.
After extinction occurs, ___, may occur, will not return the conditioned response back to its original strength.
Principles of ___ conditioning are very useful in helping people overcome fears.
To play basketball, several response chains are organized into...
in negative reinforcement, the removal of unpleasant consequences ____ the frequency of a behavior that preceded removal.
The psychologist ___ identified that stability, globally, and internality are the important elements of learned helplessness.
Learning from the consequences of behavior is called...
On a ___ schedule, reinforcement occurs after a random number of responses.
Relatively permanent changes in behavior that result from experience are known as ____.
On a ___ schedule, reinforcement occurs after a specified quantity of responses.
the mental processes involved in learning-
conditioning that results when a person's old response becomes attached to a new stimulus-
when an organism responds to a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus-
an event that leads to a certain, predictable response
conditioning that results from unpleasant consequences
the process of reinforcement used to sculpt new responses from old ones
learning from the consequence of behavior
rewarding consequences that follow a behavior
conditioning in which a person's behavior prevents an unpleasant situation from occurring
conditioning that causes an unpleasant event to stop
the number of responses needed for reinforcement changes
reinforcement that depends on a specified quantity of responses
learning resulting from observation and imitation
a learned response
a mental picture learned from repeated experience and exploration
systematic application of learning principles to change people's actions and feelings
an event that, after training, leads to a learned response
the conditioned response lessens in strength when the unconditioned response lessens in strength when the unconditioned stimulus stops being presented.