What type of cell has a charge imbalance across its membrane?
A polarized cell
What type of cell includes most cells of the body?
A polarized cell
What type of cell exhibits a membrane potential?
A polarized cell
When a depolarizing graded potential makes the axon membrane depolarize to threshold, what type of channels will open rapidly?
Voltage-gated Na+ channels.
During this period, a second action potential can only be initiated by a larger than normal stimulus
Relative refractory period
Saltatory conduction occurs only what type of axons?
What are the three types of synapses?
Axodendritic, Axosomatic and Axoaxonic
Name two advantages of electrical synapses.
Faster communication and synchronization
What are ways to remove a neurotransmitter?
Diffusion, enzymatic degradation and uptake by cells
When the summed total of postsynaptic potentials rises above threshold, where does the creation of action potentials occur?
At the trigger zone.
Name 4 small molecule neurotransmitters.
Acetylcholine, Biogenic amines, Purines and Serotonin
What type of neural circuit consists of a single presynaptic neuron synapsing with several postsynaptic neurons?
Which type of neuron is the most common type of neuron found in the brain and spinal cord?
What type of neuron has one axon and one dendrite emerging from the cell body and are found in the retina of the eye, inner ear, and olfactory region of the brain?
Which type of membrane channel that opens in response to chemical binding and is found in dendrites of some sensory receptors like pain receptors, and in the dendrites and cell bodies of interneurons and motor neurons?
Which type of membrane channel that opens in response to touch, pressure, vibration, or tissue stretching and is found in the auditory receptors of the ear, and in touch and pressure receptors in the skin?
Mechanically gated channels
What is the term that refers to break up of Nissl bodies after neural injury?
What refers to degeneration of the distal end of axon and myelin sheath after neural injury?
In an action potential, what generates the current that flows down the axon of a neuron?
The movement of ions across the membrane.
Which neurotransmitters are used in virtually all of the inhibitory synapses found in the spinal cord?
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine
What is the most superficial layer?
What contains cerebrospinal fluid?
What spinal cord feature is the area where the nerves that supply the lower limb emerge?
What contains only sensory axons that conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles and internal organs to the CNS?
Posterior root of spinal nerves
Spinal nerves are part of which system?
The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
What connects the CNS to sensors and effectors in all parts of the body?
What is named according to the region of the cord from which they emerge?
Which division of a spinal nerve reenters the vertebral cavity through the intervertebral foramen and serves the vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of the spinal cord and meninges?
Which region of the spinal cord carries nerve impulses for proprioception?
Posterior white column
What are white matter tracts of the spinal cord that carry sensory information?
Which tract of the spinal cord carries motor information?
Is an indirect pathway an ascending or descending motor pathway?
Where does the indirect pathway originate?
What does the indirect pathway govern?
Automatic movements that help regulate muscle tone, posture & balance
What do sensory receptor parts of a reflex arc monitor?
Effector parts of a nervous reflex arc are usually what?
a muscle or gland
A nerve impulse initiated at a muscle spindle has to travel through posterior root of spinal nerve to get into what?
The spinal column.
What type of reflex is initiated in response to a muscle being stretched?
somatic spinal reflex
What initiates the somatic spinal reflex that causes contraction of the agonist muscle & relaxation of the agonist muscle?
a muscle spindle
A somatic spinal reflex that involves one effector muscle being stimulated while the opposing muscle is inhibited is called what?
Name some functions of the spinal reflexes that use muscle spindles and tendon organs as sensors
Awareness of muscle tension in body, Prevention of damage to muscles, Prevention of damage to tendons and Maintenance of muscle tone
An ipsilateral, intersegmental, spinal somatic reflex will most likely control many of what type of muscles on the same side of the body as the sensor?
flexor and extensor muscles
What is the branch of a spinal nerve that serves the deep muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the trunk?
What is the area of the skin that provides sensory input to the CNS via one pair of spinal nerve?
What will a severed obturator nerve lead into?
paralysis of the thigh
During childbirth, anesthesia is administered into which epidural spaces?
L4 and L5
Which nerve DOES NOT travel through an intervertebral foramen to reach its destination?
Cervical spinal nerve 1
Where are the cell bodies of the sensory neurons that carry information from the periphery to the spinal cord located?
posterior root ganglion
What are the connective tissue coverings of the axons, fascicles and the entire nerve in the correct order?
endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium
Where does the spinothalamic tract begin?
Where does the spinothalamic tract terminate?
Which tract is found in the white matter of the spinal cord?
Which tract is composed of multiple axons carrying information in the spinal cord?
Are the gracile fasciculus and cuneate fasciculus ascending or descending tracts found in the posterior white column of the spinal cord?
Which brain vesicle gives rise to the midbrain and cerebral aqueduct?
What consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain?
What does the diencephalon consist of?
Thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus
What is an extension of the dura mater separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum?
What carries small amounts of chemicals like glucose from the blood to neurons & neuroglia?
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
What is a fluid-filled cavity located in each hemisphere of the cerebrum?
What is the network of capillaries found in the walls of the ventricles of the brain that produce cerebrospinal fluid?
What is a netlike region of white and gray matter that extends throughout the brainstem and functions to help maintain consciousness?
This is the structure in the brain that contains centers responsible for the "startle reflex" in response to loud sounds.
What region of the brain contains pneumotaxic and apneustic areas that help control respiration?
What is a nucleus found in the medulla oblongata that receives sensory information associated with touch, pressure and vibration?
What is a nucleus found in the midbrain that releases dopamine?
Which is the portion of the cerebellum that contributes to equilibrium and balance?
What structure carries sensory information coming from proprioceptors found in the trunk and limbs into the cerebellum?
Inferior cerebellar peduncle
What region of the brain serves as the major relay station for most sensory impulses that reach the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex from the spinal cord and brain stem?
What controls hunger, thirst, emotional behavior and body temperature?
What contains the pineal gland?
What conducts nerve impulses between the two different hemispheres of the cerebrum?
What functional areas of the cerebrum are responsible for conscious movements of the body?
Primary motor area
Which functional areas of the cerebrum are responsible for speech?
Which nerves control movements of the eyeball?
CN III, IV and VI
Cranial nerve V is also known as what?
Which cranial nerve is responsible for regulating visceral activity?
Hand preference when writing or throwing is an example of what?
Which brain waves generally appear during periods of sensory input and mental activity?
Which brain waves appear in adults and children during periods of emotional stress?
What is the deep indentation found along the medial plane that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called?
What have you damaged if you experience loss of memory of recent events and difficulty committing anything new to memory?