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125 terms

A & P CH 18

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the function of the kidneys is to:
form urine
what helps hold the kidneys in place?
renal fascia
the renal artery is a branch of the:
abdominal aorta
the renal vein takes blood to the:
inferior vena cava
the funnel-shaped extensions of the renal pelivis are called:
calyces
the structural and functional unit of the kidney is the:
nephron
the renal corpuscle consists of a ________ surrounded by a _________ _________
glomerulus, Bowman's capsule
the glomerulus is a _______ _______ that arises from an _______ arteriole and empties into in an ______ arteriole.
capillary network, afferent, efferent
the space between the inner and outer layer of Bowman's capsule contains ________ _______.
renal filtrate
the renal tuble consists of the _______________. ______________, and _______________
proximal convoluted tubule, loop on Henle, distal convoluted tubule
glomerular filtration takes place in the:
renal corpuscle
reabsorption and secretion takes place in the:
renal tubule
how much of the renal filtrate is reabsorbed backe into the blood:
99 percent
list the 4 mechanisms of reabsorption:
1. active transport
2. passive transport
3. osmosis
4. pnocytosis
the reabsorption of water is influenced by what hormones?
aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
aldosterone is secreted by the:
adrenal cortex
ANP is secreted by the:
atria of the heart
ADH is secreted by the:
posterior pituitary gland
when blood pressure decreases, the kidneys secrete:
renin
the kidneys secrete what hormones whenever the blood oxygen level decreases?
erythropoietin
what action does erythropoietin stimulate?
the red bone marrow to increase the rate of RBC production
what is the vitamin that increases the absorption of calcium and phosphate in the small intestine?
vitamin D3 (calcitriol)
urine moces through the ureter by means of:
peristalsis of smooth muscle
the external sphincter of the urethra is under what control?
voluntary
the normal range of urinary output in 24 hours is:
1 to 2 liters
the color of urine is often referred to as:
yellow (straw/amber)
the measure of dissolved materials in the urine is called the:
specific gravity
the average pH of urine is:
6.0
what has a high influence of pH change in the urine?
diet
the urinary sytem consists of:
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra
body cells produce waste products such as ______, ______ and ________, which must be removed from the blood before they accumulate to toxic levels
urea, creatine, and ammonia
the process of urine formation, therefore, helps maintain the ______ ______, _____, and _____ of both blood and tissue fluid by removing those substances that would upset the normal constancy and balance of these extracellular fluids
normal composition, volume, and ph
the two ______ are located in the upper abdominal cavity on either side of the vertebral column, behind the peritoneum
kidneys
retroperitoneal
behind the peritoneum
the upper portions of the kidneys rest on the lower surface of the______ and are enclosed and protected by the ______ _____ ______
diaphragm, lower rib cage
the ______ kidney is slightly higher than the ______ kidney because of the presence of the ______ in the ______ _____ _____ ______
left, right, liver, upper right abdominal quadrant
the kidneys are embedded in ________ ______ that acts as a cushion and is in turn covered by a fibrous connective tissue membrane called _____ ________, which helps hold the kidneys in place
adipose tissue, renal fascia
each kidney has an indentation called the _______ on its medial side
hilus
at the hilus, the ______ _____ enters the kidney, and the _____ _____ and ______ emerge
renal artery, renal vein, ureter
the ______ ______ is a branch of the abdominal aorta, and the _____ ______ returns blood to the inferior vena cava
renal artery, renal vein
the ureter carries urine from the kidney to the:
urinary bladder
ther outer tissue layer of the kidney is called the ________ _______, it is made of _____ ______ and _______ _______
renal cortex, renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules
the inner tissue layer of the kidney is the _______ _________, which is made of _______ ___ _____ and ________ _______
renal medulla, loops of Henle, collecting tubules
the renal medulla consists of wedge-shaped pieces called _____ ______
renal pyramids
the third area of the kidney is the _____ ______
renal pelvis
urine flows from the ______ _____ into the _______, then to the _____ _____ and out into the _______
renal pyramids, calyces, renal pelivis, ureter
the ______ is the structural and functional unit of the kidney.
nephron
each kidney contains approximately __________ nephrons
one million
it is in the nephrons, with their associated blood vessels that
urine is formed
each nephron has 2 major portions:
a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule
a ______ ______ consisis of a glomerulus surrounded by a Bowman's capsule
renal corpuscle
the diameter of the _______ arteriole is smaller than that of an ________ arteriole, which helps maintain a fairly high blood pressure in the glomerulus
efferent, afferent
________ ______ is the expanded end of a renal tubule; it encloses the glomerulus
Bowman's capsure
The inner layer of the Bownman's capsule is made of _______
podocytes
podocytes make the inner bowman's capsule layer
permeable
the outer layer of the bowman's capsule has no pores so it is not
permeable
the space between the inner and outer layers of bowman's capsule contains _____ _____ the fluid that is formed form the blood in the glomerulus and will eventually become _______
renal filtrate, urine
the ____ ____ continues from the Bowman's capsule and consists of 3 parts
renal tubule
the distal convoluted tubules from several nephrons empty into a ______ ______
collecting tubule
several collecting tubules then unite to form a ______ _____ that empties urine into a _____ of the renal pelvis
papillary duct, calyx
renal tubule contains
microvilli
all parts of the renal tubule are surrounded by _______ _____, which arise from the efferent arteriole.
peritubular capillaries
the pathway of blood flow through the kidney is an essential part of the process of _____ _____
urine formation
blood from the abdominal aorta enters the ____ ____ which branches within the kidney into several interlolobar arteries, each interlobar artery becomes an ______ _____, which branches into many interlobular arteries that enter the _____ ______
renal artery, arcuate artery, renal cortex
from the afferent arterioles, blood flowes into the _________ to efferent arterioles, to _______ _____ and to a series of veins with the same sames (interlobular and arcuate) as their neighboring arteries
glomeruli, peritubular capillaries
the interlobar veins all unite at the hilus to form the ____ ____, which empites blood into the ______ ______ _____
renal vein, inferior vena cava
exchanges between the blood and surrounding tissue takes place in
capillaries
exchanges between the nephron and the capillaries of the kindeys will form _____ from _____ _____
urine, blood plasma
the formation of urine involves 3 major processes, the first is ________ ____ which takes place in the ______ ______ the second and third are _____ _____ and _______ _______ which take place in the _____ _______
glomerular filtration, renal corpuscles, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion, renal tubules
filtration is the process in which blood pressure forces plasma and dissolved material out of _____
capillaries
in __________ _________ blood pressure forces plasma, dissolbed substances, and small proteins out of the glomeruli and into Bowman's capsule, this fluid is no longer plasma but is called ______ ______
glomerular filtration, renal filtrate
the blood pressure in the glomeruli, compared with that in other capillareis, is _______ _____. the pressure in Bowman's capsules is very _____ and its inner podocyte layer is very ______ so that approximately ________ of the blood that eners glomeruli becomes ______ _____
relatively high, low, permeable, 20 - 25%, renal filtrate
the blood cells and larger proteins are to large to be forces out of the glomeruli, so they reamin in the
blood
waste products are dissolved in _____ ____, so they pass ino the renal filtrate
blood plasma
useful materials such as nutrients and minerals are dissolved in _______ and are also present in ______ ______
plasma, renal filtrate
filration is not selective with respect to _______; it is selective only with respect to ______
usefulness, size
renal filtrate is very much like ______ , except that there is far less ______ and no blood cells are present
blood, protein
the ______ _____ _____ is the amount of renal filtrate formed by the kidneys in 1 minute, and averages _______ ___ ____
glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 100 to 125 ml per minute.
GFR may be altered if the rate of blood flow throught the kidneys changes. if blood flow increases, the GFR ______ and more _____ is formed. If blood flow decreases the GFR _______, less _____ is formed, and urinary output _______
increases, filtrate, decreases, filtrate decreases
tubular reabsortion takes place from the ______ ______ into the ________ ________
renal tubules, peritubular capillaries
in a 24-hour period, the kidneys form _____ to _____ liters of filtrate, and the normal urinary output in that time is ____ to ____ liters
150, 180, 1, 2
most reabsorption and secretion take place in the proximal convoluted tubules, whose cells have _______ that greately increase their surface area
microvilli
the cells of the renal tubule use _____ to transport most of the useful materials from the filtrate to the blood. those useful materials include _____, _______, ______, ______, and ________
ATP, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and positive ions
the renal tubules have a ______ _____ of reabsorption, meaning that there is a limit to how much the tubules can remove from the filtrate
threshold level
many of the negative ions that are returned to the blood are reabsorbed following the reabsorption of positibe ions, because:
unlike charges attract
the reabsorption of water follow the reabsorption of minerals, especially sodium ions
osmosis
small proteins are too large to be reabsorbed by active transport. They become absorbed to the membranes of the cells of the proximal concoluted tubules.
pincytosis
in ________ ________ substances are actively secreted from the blood in the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate in the renal tubules
tubular secretion
increases reabsortion of water form the filtrate to the blood
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (posterior pituitary)
increases reabsorption of Ca+2 ions from filtrate to the blood and excretion of phosphate ions into the filtrate
parathyroid hormone (PTH)(parathyroid glands)
icreases reabsorbtion of Na+ions from the filtrate to the blood and excretion of K+ions into the filtrate. water is reabsorbed following the reabsorption of sodium.
aldosterone (adrenal cortex)
decreases reabsortption of Na+ions, which remain in the filtrate. More sodium and water are eliminate in urine
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (atria of heart)
the kidneys form _____ from _____ ____ blood flow throught they kidneys is a major factor in determining ______ _______
urine, blood pasma. urinary output
_______ ______ is the first step in urine formation.
glomerular filtration
hormones such as aldosterone, ANP, and ADH influence the reabsorption of _______ and help maintain normal ______ _____ and _______ ______. the secretion of ADH determines whethera concentrated or dilute ______ will be formed
water, blood volume, blood pressure, urine
waste products remain in the renal filtrate and are excreted in ______
urine
the kidneys are the orgnas most responsible for maintaining the pH of ______ and ______ _____ within normal ranges
blood and tissue fluid
if body fluids are becoming too acidic, the kidneys will secrete more _____ ions into the renal filtrate and will reture more _____ ions to the blood
H+, HCO3-
the other functions of the kidneys:
secretion of renin, production of erythropoitin, and activation of vit d
when blood pressure decreases, the ________ _____ in the walls of the afferent arterioles secrete the enzyme ______
juxtaglomerular cells, renin
renin then initiates the renin-antiotensin mechanism to raise ____ _____
blood pressure
the end product of this mechanism is ________ , which causes vasconstriction and increases the secretion of ________, both of which help raise blood pressure
angiotensin II, aldosterone
this hormone is secreted whenever the blood oxygen level decreases (hypoxia)
erythropoietin
the uteres, urinary bladder, and urethra do not change the _____ or _____ of urine, bur are responsible for the periodic ________ of urine
composition, amount, elimination
each _____ extends from the hilus of a kidney, to the lower, posterior side of the urinary bladder
ureter
the lining of the ureter has wide, deep folds that rduce the size of the
lumen
the smooth muscle in the wall of the ureter contracts in _______ _____ to propel urine toward the urinary bladder
peistaltic waves
the _____ ______ is a muscular sac below the peritoneum and behind the pubic bones
urinary bladder
the bladder is a ________ for accumulating ruine, and it _______ to eliminate urine
reservoir, eliminate
the mucosa of the bladder is _____ ______, which permits expansion without tearing the lining.
transitional epithelium
when the bladder is empty, the mucosa appears wrinkled; these folds are _____, which also permit expansion
rugae
on the floor of the bladder is a triangular are called the ______, which has no rugae and does not expand. the points of the triangle are the openings of the _____ ______ and that of the ________
trigone, two ureters, urethra
the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the bladder is called the _________ _______
detrusor muscle
around the opening of the urethra the muscle fibers of the detrusor form the _______ _____ _____, which is ___________
internal urethral sphincter, involuntary
the _________ carries urine from the bladder to the exterior.
urethra
the _____ _____ ______ is made of the surrounding skeletal muscle of the pelvic floor, and is under ______ control
external urethral sphincter, voluntary
micturition or voiding
urination
urination is a spinal cord reflex over which______ control may be exterted. the stimulus for the reflex is stretching of the detrusor muscle of the bladder
voluntary
the bladder can hold as much as ______ml of urnine. when urine volume reaches ______to _____ ml the stretching is sufficient to generate sensory impuleses that travel to the _____ _____ _____
800, 200, 400, sacral spinal cord
motor impulses return along _____________ ______ to the detrusor muscle, causing ________
parasymathetic nerves, constriction
gylcosuria
presence of glucose
proteinuria
presence of protein
hematuria
presence of blood RBCs
bacteriuria
presence of bacteria
ketonuria
presence of keytones