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the function of the kidneys is to:

form urine

what helps hold the kidneys in place?

renal fascia

the renal artery is a branch of the:

abdominal aorta

the renal vein takes blood to the:

inferior vena cava

the funnel-shaped extensions of the renal pelivis are called:


the structural and functional unit of the kidney is the:


the renal corpuscle consists of a ________ surrounded by a _________ _________

glomerulus, Bowman's capsule

the glomerulus is a _______ _______ that arises from an _______ arteriole and empties into in an ______ arteriole.

capillary network, afferent, efferent

the space between the inner and outer layer of Bowman's capsule contains ________ _______.

renal filtrate

the renal tuble consists of the _______________. ______________, and _______________

proximal convoluted tubule, loop on Henle, distal convoluted tubule

glomerular filtration takes place in the:

renal corpuscle

reabsorption and secretion takes place in the:

renal tubule

how much of the renal filtrate is reabsorbed backe into the blood:

99 percent

list the 4 mechanisms of reabsorption:

1. active transport
2. passive transport
3. osmosis
4. pnocytosis

the reabsorption of water is influenced by what hormones?

aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

aldosterone is secreted by the:

adrenal cortex

ANP is secreted by the:

atria of the heart

ADH is secreted by the:

posterior pituitary gland

when blood pressure decreases, the kidneys secrete:


the kidneys secrete what hormones whenever the blood oxygen level decreases?


what action does erythropoietin stimulate?

the red bone marrow to increase the rate of RBC production

what is the vitamin that increases the absorption of calcium and phosphate in the small intestine?

vitamin D3 (calcitriol)

urine moces through the ureter by means of:

peristalsis of smooth muscle

the external sphincter of the urethra is under what control?


the normal range of urinary output in 24 hours is:

1 to 2 liters

the color of urine is often referred to as:

yellow (straw/amber)

the measure of dissolved materials in the urine is called the:

specific gravity

the average pH of urine is:


what has a high influence of pH change in the urine?


the urinary sytem consists of:

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra

body cells produce waste products such as ______, ______ and ________, which must be removed from the blood before they accumulate to toxic levels

urea, creatine, and ammonia

the process of urine formation, therefore, helps maintain the ______ ______, _____, and _____ of both blood and tissue fluid by removing those substances that would upset the normal constancy and balance of these extracellular fluids

normal composition, volume, and ph

the two ______ are located in the upper abdominal cavity on either side of the vertebral column, behind the peritoneum



behind the peritoneum

the upper portions of the kidneys rest on the lower surface of the______ and are enclosed and protected by the ______ _____ ______

diaphragm, lower rib cage

the ______ kidney is slightly higher than the ______ kidney because of the presence of the ______ in the ______ _____ _____ ______

left, right, liver, upper right abdominal quadrant

the kidneys are embedded in ________ ______ that acts as a cushion and is in turn covered by a fibrous connective tissue membrane called _____ ________, which helps hold the kidneys in place

adipose tissue, renal fascia

each kidney has an indentation called the _______ on its medial side


at the hilus, the ______ _____ enters the kidney, and the _____ _____ and ______ emerge

renal artery, renal vein, ureter

the ______ ______ is a branch of the abdominal aorta, and the _____ ______ returns blood to the inferior vena cava

renal artery, renal vein

the ureter carries urine from the kidney to the:

urinary bladder

ther outer tissue layer of the kidney is called the ________ _______, it is made of _____ ______ and _______ _______

renal cortex, renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules

the inner tissue layer of the kidney is the _______ _________, which is made of _______ ___ _____ and ________ _______

renal medulla, loops of Henle, collecting tubules

the renal medulla consists of wedge-shaped pieces called _____ ______

renal pyramids

the third area of the kidney is the _____ ______

renal pelvis

urine flows from the ______ _____ into the _______, then to the _____ _____ and out into the _______

renal pyramids, calyces, renal pelivis, ureter

the ______ is the structural and functional unit of the kidney.


each kidney contains approximately __________ nephrons

one million

it is in the nephrons, with their associated blood vessels that

urine is formed

each nephron has 2 major portions:

a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule

a ______ ______ consisis of a glomerulus surrounded by a Bowman's capsule

renal corpuscle

the diameter of the _______ arteriole is smaller than that of an ________ arteriole, which helps maintain a fairly high blood pressure in the glomerulus

efferent, afferent

________ ______ is the expanded end of a renal tubule; it encloses the glomerulus

Bowman's capsure

The inner layer of the Bownman's capsule is made of _______


podocytes make the inner bowman's capsule layer


the outer layer of the bowman's capsule has no pores so it is not


the space between the inner and outer layers of bowman's capsule contains _____ _____ the fluid that is formed form the blood in the glomerulus and will eventually become _______

renal filtrate, urine

the ____ ____ continues from the Bowman's capsule and consists of 3 parts

renal tubule

the distal convoluted tubules from several nephrons empty into a ______ ______

collecting tubule

several collecting tubules then unite to form a ______ _____ that empties urine into a _____ of the renal pelvis

papillary duct, calyx

renal tubule contains


all parts of the renal tubule are surrounded by _______ _____, which arise from the efferent arteriole.

peritubular capillaries

the pathway of blood flow through the kidney is an essential part of the process of _____ _____

urine formation

blood from the abdominal aorta enters the ____ ____ which branches within the kidney into several interlolobar arteries, each interlobar artery becomes an ______ _____, which branches into many interlobular arteries that enter the _____ ______

renal artery, arcuate artery, renal cortex

from the afferent arterioles, blood flowes into the _________ to efferent arterioles, to _______ _____ and to a series of veins with the same sames (interlobular and arcuate) as their neighboring arteries

glomeruli, peritubular capillaries

the interlobar veins all unite at the hilus to form the ____ ____, which empites blood into the ______ ______ _____

renal vein, inferior vena cava

exchanges between the blood and surrounding tissue takes place in


exchanges between the nephron and the capillaries of the kindeys will form _____ from _____ _____

urine, blood plasma

the formation of urine involves 3 major processes, the first is ________ ____ which takes place in the ______ ______ the second and third are _____ _____ and _______ _______ which take place in the _____ _______

glomerular filtration, renal corpuscles, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion, renal tubules

filtration is the process in which blood pressure forces plasma and dissolved material out of _____


in __________ _________ blood pressure forces plasma, dissolbed substances, and small proteins out of the glomeruli and into Bowman's capsule, this fluid is no longer plasma but is called ______ ______

glomerular filtration, renal filtrate

the blood pressure in the glomeruli, compared with that in other capillareis, is _______ _____. the pressure in Bowman's capsules is very _____ and its inner podocyte layer is very ______ so that approximately ________ of the blood that eners glomeruli becomes ______ _____

relatively high, low, permeable, 20 - 25%, renal filtrate

the blood cells and larger proteins are to large to be forces out of the glomeruli, so they reamin in the


waste products are dissolved in _____ ____, so they pass ino the renal filtrate

blood plasma

useful materials such as nutrients and minerals are dissolved in _______ and are also present in ______ ______

plasma, renal filtrate

filration is not selective with respect to _______; it is selective only with respect to ______

usefulness, size

renal filtrate is very much like ______ , except that there is far less ______ and no blood cells are present

blood, protein

the ______ _____ _____ is the amount of renal filtrate formed by the kidneys in 1 minute, and averages _______ ___ ____

glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 100 to 125 ml per minute.

GFR may be altered if the rate of blood flow throught the kidneys changes. if blood flow increases, the GFR ______ and more _____ is formed. If blood flow decreases the GFR _______, less _____ is formed, and urinary output _______

increases, filtrate, decreases, filtrate decreases

tubular reabsortion takes place from the ______ ______ into the ________ ________

renal tubules, peritubular capillaries

in a 24-hour period, the kidneys form _____ to _____ liters of filtrate, and the normal urinary output in that time is ____ to ____ liters

150, 180, 1, 2

most reabsorption and secretion take place in the proximal convoluted tubules, whose cells have _______ that greately increase their surface area


the cells of the renal tubule use _____ to transport most of the useful materials from the filtrate to the blood. those useful materials include _____, _______, ______, ______, and ________

ATP, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and positive ions

the renal tubules have a ______ _____ of reabsorption, meaning that there is a limit to how much the tubules can remove from the filtrate

threshold level

many of the negative ions that are returned to the blood are reabsorbed following the reabsorption of positibe ions, because:

unlike charges attract

the reabsorption of water follow the reabsorption of minerals, especially sodium ions


small proteins are too large to be reabsorbed by active transport. They become absorbed to the membranes of the cells of the proximal concoluted tubules.


in ________ ________ substances are actively secreted from the blood in the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate in the renal tubules

tubular secretion

increases reabsortion of water form the filtrate to the blood

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (posterior pituitary)

increases reabsorption of Ca+2 ions from filtrate to the blood and excretion of phosphate ions into the filtrate

parathyroid hormone (PTH)(parathyroid glands)

icreases reabsorbtion of Na+ions from the filtrate to the blood and excretion of K+ions into the filtrate. water is reabsorbed following the reabsorption of sodium.

aldosterone (adrenal cortex)

decreases reabsortption of Na+ions, which remain in the filtrate. More sodium and water are eliminate in urine

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (atria of heart)

the kidneys form _____ from _____ ____ blood flow throught they kidneys is a major factor in determining ______ _______

urine, blood pasma. urinary output

_______ ______ is the first step in urine formation.

glomerular filtration

hormones such as aldosterone, ANP, and ADH influence the reabsorption of _______ and help maintain normal ______ _____ and _______ ______. the secretion of ADH determines whethera concentrated or dilute ______ will be formed

water, blood volume, blood pressure, urine

waste products remain in the renal filtrate and are excreted in ______


the kidneys are the orgnas most responsible for maintaining the pH of ______ and ______ _____ within normal ranges

blood and tissue fluid

if body fluids are becoming too acidic, the kidneys will secrete more _____ ions into the renal filtrate and will reture more _____ ions to the blood

H+, HCO3-

the other functions of the kidneys:

secretion of renin, production of erythropoitin, and activation of vit d

when blood pressure decreases, the ________ _____ in the walls of the afferent arterioles secrete the enzyme ______

juxtaglomerular cells, renin

renin then initiates the renin-antiotensin mechanism to raise ____ _____

blood pressure

the end product of this mechanism is ________ , which causes vasconstriction and increases the secretion of ________, both of which help raise blood pressure

angiotensin II, aldosterone

this hormone is secreted whenever the blood oxygen level decreases (hypoxia)


the uteres, urinary bladder, and urethra do not change the _____ or _____ of urine, bur are responsible for the periodic ________ of urine

composition, amount, elimination

each _____ extends from the hilus of a kidney, to the lower, posterior side of the urinary bladder


the lining of the ureter has wide, deep folds that rduce the size of the


the smooth muscle in the wall of the ureter contracts in _______ _____ to propel urine toward the urinary bladder

peistaltic waves

the _____ ______ is a muscular sac below the peritoneum and behind the pubic bones

urinary bladder

the bladder is a ________ for accumulating ruine, and it _______ to eliminate urine

reservoir, eliminate

the mucosa of the bladder is _____ ______, which permits expansion without tearing the lining.

transitional epithelium

when the bladder is empty, the mucosa appears wrinkled; these folds are _____, which also permit expansion


on the floor of the bladder is a triangular are called the ______, which has no rugae and does not expand. the points of the triangle are the openings of the _____ ______ and that of the ________

trigone, two ureters, urethra

the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the bladder is called the _________ _______

detrusor muscle

around the opening of the urethra the muscle fibers of the detrusor form the _______ _____ _____, which is ___________

internal urethral sphincter, involuntary

the _________ carries urine from the bladder to the exterior.


the _____ _____ ______ is made of the surrounding skeletal muscle of the pelvic floor, and is under ______ control

external urethral sphincter, voluntary

micturition or voiding


urination is a spinal cord reflex over which______ control may be exterted. the stimulus for the reflex is stretching of the detrusor muscle of the bladder


the bladder can hold as much as ______ml of urnine. when urine volume reaches ______to _____ ml the stretching is sufficient to generate sensory impuleses that travel to the _____ _____ _____

800, 200, 400, sacral spinal cord

motor impulses return along _____________ ______ to the detrusor muscle, causing ________

parasymathetic nerves, constriction


presence of glucose


presence of protein


presence of blood RBCs


presence of bacteria


presence of keytones

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