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bad food

After getting food poisoning from the lunch cafeteria, Rodney now gets nauseous when he walks by and smells the food. What was the unconditioned stimulus in this scenario?


What principles of learning do behavior modification programs rely on in order to help people change?


Pavlov's dog learned to anticipate food whenever he was presented with stimuli associated with food. Pavlov knew that his dog associated specific stimuli with food because the ________ was elicited by the stimuli.

associated with food.

Pavlov's dog salivated to the sound of a bell because the bell had become

requires some relatively permanent change to occur.

Any situation that involves learning

observable associations.

The behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of

classical conditioning.

Little Millie covers her ears every time she sees a flash of lightening during a storm. This reaction demonstrates


In classical conditioning situations, the ________ connection is innate, while the ________ connection is learned.

He should turn on the light before he drops the food into the tank.

Boris is trying to use classical conditioning to teach his goldfish to come to the top of the tank to eat whenever he turns on the aquarium light. He drops food into the tank and then turns on the light. After several such trials, the fish show no more inclination to come to the top of the tank when the light is turned on than they did on the first trial. What would you suggest that Boris do to improve his training technique?

flinching before touching the door

During the winter months, Alfred receives a static shock each time he touches his car door when exiting his vehicle. Now Alfred flinches right before he touches the door. What represents the conditioned response?

NOT learn to inhibit a response.
Maybe: discriminate.

Bubba, a very smart German shepherd, has learned that if he barks at the neighbors while they are grilling, they will throw him a treat. However, his owner, Paul, does not want Bubba to eat "people" food. When Paul is in the yard, Bubba never barks at the neighbors. According to operant conditioning principles, Bubba is demonstrating that he can

extinction has occurred

Grayson's dog salivates each time he hears the fridge door open. Grayson decides to try an experiment. He sets up several trials where his dog salivates upon hearing the fridge door open but does not receive any food. As a result, the dog stops salivating when the fridge door is opened. What happened?

spontaneous recovery.

Marcia was romantically involved with John. Unfortunately, Marcia eventually discovered that John was being a complete jerk, so she ended the relationship. One day in the mall, she suddenly gets a whiff of the cologne that John always wore. All the former good feelings come pouring back. This is an example of

NOT All of these.
Maybe: environmental triggers may be able to shut-down our immune systems

You are surprised to discover that classical conditioning can produce immunosuppression. The original discovery of this phenomenon involved rats, but more recent studies indicate that immunosuppression may also occur in humans. This means that

be unable to eat a hotdog at the next ball game he attends.

Kenny ate several hotdogs at the baseball game. Several hours later he got very nauseous and spent most of the night being physically sick. We can expect that he will


David earns one thousand dollars every time his sales reach one hundred thousand dollars. For David, the bonus is an example of ________ reinforcement.

NOT associative learning.
Maybe: avoidance learning

Because she once received a speeding ticket, Martha always drives the speed limit, even when there are no highway patrolmen present. Martha is demonstrating

learned helplessness.

One of your sorority sisters is in an abusive relationship. Her boyfriend physically abuses her and this has lead to several hospital visits. In talking with her, you discover that she also was abused by her father as a child. You now begin to understand why she puts up with an abusive boyfriend. This is a classic example of


A reinforcer that is innately satisfying and does not require any learning to be perceived of as pleasurable is referred to as a(n) ________ reinforcer.


Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?

NOT generalization.
Maybe: discrimination.

Little Henry knows that when he goes shopping with Mommy and throws a tantrum, he never gets a treat. However, he also knows that if he throws a tantrum when his Dad takes him, his Dad always gives in. Little Henry is demonstrating

partial reinforcement

Fred's parents are very inconsistent. Most of the time Fred climbs on the furniture without receiving any reprimands, however sometimes he is punished for this behavior. Fred's parents cannot understand why he is not a better behaved child. Fred's parents are reinforcing his negative behaviors on a ________ schedule.


Kayla is selling her Girl Scout cookies in the neighborhood. She never knows how many houses she will have to visit before she sells all of her cookies. Kayla is operating on a ________ schedule.

NOT: trial and error learning.
maybe: latent learning

Tolman demonstrated that rats can learn to run a maze correctly even though they were never reinforced for successfully running through it. This demonstrated the phenomenon of

uncontrolled negative events can lower immune system functioning.

Your sorority sister is a pre-law student. After reading about the importance of control over aversive events, she decides that pop quizzes can cause physical harm and should be banned as students have no control over when they will occur. Her position has some merit because

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