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what is the atmospheric gas mixture?

O2 , CO2, N2, H2O

what percentage does O2 make up up the atmospheric pressure?


What percentage does CO2 make up of the atmospheric pressure?


What percentage does N2 make up of atmospheric pressure?


what is the partial pressure of O2 at atmospheric pressure?

159 mmHg

what is the partial pressure of CO2 at atmospheric pressure?

.3 mm Hg

what is the partial pressure of N2 at atmospheric pressure?

597 mm Hg

what is the partial pressure of H2O at atmospheric pressure?

3.5 mm Hg

Effecient "external" respiration depends on what three factors?

PP gradients & gas solubilities-matching of alveolar ventilation & pulmonary blood perfusion-structural characteristics of the respiratory membrane

what are the two factors that promote gas exchange during "internal" respiration/

simple diffusion and pp grandients of O2 and CO2

What are the factors that cause the PP of gases in the alveoli(lungs) to differ from pressure in the atmosphere?

Humidification of inhaled air and gas exchange between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries

what is external respiration?

Lungs ---->into capillaries

what is internal respiration?

Capillaries--->into tissue

what is the pp of O2 and Co2 during external respiration going into capillaries?

Po2 =40mmHg & Pco2=45mmHg

What is the PP of O2 and Co2 during external respiration leaving capillaries?

Po2=104mmHg & Pco2=40mmHg

What is the purpose of ventilation-Perfusion coupling?

maintain air flow and blood flow into proper proportions for efficient gas exchange

when air flow is restricted what happens to the arterioles & bronchioles?

arterioles-->constrict & bronchioles-->dilate

what is ventilation?

amount of gas reaching the alveoli in the lungs

what is perfusion?

blood flow in pulmonary capillaries

The lungs empty when?

the intra-alveolar(pulmonary)pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure

when does inspiration begin?

w/the contraction of the inspiratory muscles

The expanding thoracic cavity pulls on what?

the parietal pleura

what is the job of the conducting zone?

conduct air & warm, humidify & cleanse the air en route to the respiratory zone

what makes up the conducting zone?

External nares(nose) to the end of the terminal bronchioles

what makes up the lower respiratory system?

Trachea to the alveoli

what makes up the upper respiratory system?


what is involved in the respiratory system?

pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of gases, internal respiration

what is the main function of the respiratory system?

supply O2 to the body cells and to remove CO2

what is a clinical application of Henrys law?

hyperbaric oxygen chamber

what is henrys law?

more CO2 than O2 dissolves in liquid when both gases are at the same pressure because oxygen is only 1/20 as soluble as Co2

What is the most distal segment of the conducting zone?

terminal bronchioles

what removes the debri in the alveoli?


what is the hilum?

indented area of an organ where blood or lymph vessels and nerves come in and out

what is the root of the lung called?


how many lobes does the right lung have?


which bronchi is shorter and more likely to get a cheetoh stuck in it?

the right

a decrease in surfactant will result in what to compliance?

goes down

what is fibrosis?

scar tissue

fibrosis will do what to compliance?

goes down

what is compliance?

stretchy nous of the tubes

If transpulmonary pressure equals zero what will happen to the lungs?

they will collapse

what pressure is always negative and helps keep the lungs inflated?

intra pleural pressure

If the volume in the lungs is up what will the pressure be?


what are the functions of the nasal cavity?

warm and moisten air, filter, aids in smell

what is the actual site of gas exchange?

respiratory zone

deep breathing uses forceful contractions of what muscles?

inspiratory muscles and additional accessory muscles to produce larger changes in volume--also, scalenes and sternocleidomastoid

deep experation is what kind of process?


what is the pressure in the lungs called?

Intra pulmonary pressure(intra-alveolar)

what is the pressure difference between intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressure called?


what is another name for pharyngeal tonsil?


what are the three functions of the larynx?

voice production, switch mechanism, air flow

during deep or forced inspiration what other muscles are also involved?

scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor

Quiet expiration depends more on what than muscle contraction?

lung elasticity

forced expiration is an active process that involves what muscles?

abdominal wall muscles-primarily the oblique and transversus muscles

what happens to the diaphram during quiet expiration?

It moves superiorly

what happens to the diaphram & external intercostal muscles during quiet expiration?

the diaphram and external intercostal muscles relaxe and the elastic lungs and thoracic wall recoil inward

what does the diaphram do during inspiration?

moves inferiorly(down)

During inspiration what do the intercostal muscles and sternum do?

external intercostal muscles elevate the rib cage--the sternum moves anteriorly (forward)

During quiet inspiration what happens to the diaphram and the external intercostal muscle?

they contract

what is the alveoli?

thin walled air filled sacs in which gas exchange occurs

what is the role of surfactant-secreting cells in the alveoli?

cuboidal cells found within an alveolus that secretes surfactant which coats the alveolar surface and lowers the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

what is boyles law?

the relationship between the pressure and volume of gases

laryngopharynx location?

inferior to oropharynx, superior to esophagus, starts just inferior to epiglottis and is continuous with esophogus

nasopharynx location?

posterior to soft palate, superior to oropharynx

oropharynx location?

inferior to nasopharynx, superior to laryngopharynx : from soft palate to just slightly inferior to epiglottis

what kind of tissue does the pharynx have?

muscle tissue

what kind of tissue do the bronchioles have?

smooth muscle

How many lobes does the left lung have>


the intrapleural pressure is slightly lower than what?

than intra-alveolar pressure

what are the inspiratory muscles?

diaphram and external intercostals

what is pulmonary ventilation?

inspiration & expiration

what is boyles law?

volume changes lead to pressure changes --pressure changes lead to flow of gases to equalize the pressure

what is the medical term for lung collapse?


what determines the size of the lungs?

size of the transpulmonary pressure

what is intrapleural pressure?

the pressure in the pleural cavity

what is atmospheric pressure?

760mmHg pressure exerted by that air(gases) surrounding the body

the thoracic cavity pulling on the parietal pleura does what?

increases its volume

the lungs fill with air when what happens?

the atmospheric pressure is greater than alveolar pressure

freshly oxygenated blood is conveyed by the respiratory zones of the lungs to heart by what?

pulmonary veins

systemic venous blood that is to oxygenated in the lungs is delivered by what?

pulmonary arteries

what is the name for the presence of air in the intrapleural space?


what is intrapulmonary pressure?

the pressure in the alveoli(lung sac)

what is tidal volume?

amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under normal resting conditions(500ml)

what is inspiratory reserve volume(IRV)?

amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation(3100ml)

what is expiratory reserve volume(ERV)

amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation(1200)ml

what is vital capacity?

maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after maximal inspiration(4800) ml

vital capacity equals what?

VT=tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume

what is the upper tract lined with?

respiratory mucosa(except lower pharanx-stratified squamous)

the skeleton of the respiratory tract is cartilaginous except where?


the skeleton of the respiratory tract is cartilaginous down to where?

the smallest airways(bronchioles)

what keeps the lungs from collapsing?

transpulmonary pressure

the relationship between pressure and volume is known as what law?

boyles law

is pulmonary pressure up or down during inspiration?


what is the most negative during inspiration?

intrapleural pressure

what is immediate lung collapse called?


when bronchiole constrict what will happen to resistance?

it will go up

what will happen to airflow if bronchioles constrict?

goes down

what two important factors play a role in ventilation?

diaphram and intercostals

Histamine does what to bronchioles?

resistance goes up and airflow goes down

what does epinephrine do to bronchioles?


what does epinephrine do to the resistance of bronchioles?

down because it dilates bronchioles

acetycholine does what to bronchioles?


what muscles are involved in forced inspiration?:

scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, external intercostals and diaphram

what muscles are involved in expiration?

internal intercostals and abdominals

what muscles are involved in forced expiration?

internal oblique and transverse abdominus, internal intercostals and abdominals

what causes sever cough relex?

carina cartilage

what is the intra pulmonary pressure?


what is the intra pleural pressure?

756 mmHg

what is the transpulmonary pressure?

4 mmHg

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