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Effecient "external" respiration depends on what three factors?
PP gradients & gas solubilities-matching of alveolar ventilation & pulmonary blood perfusion-structural characteristics of the respiratory membrane
what are the two factors that promote gas exchange during "internal" respiration/
simple diffusion and pp grandients of O2 and CO2
What are the factors that cause the PP of gases in the alveoli(lungs) to differ from pressure in the atmosphere?
Humidification of inhaled air and gas exchange between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
what is the pp of O2 and Co2 during external respiration going into capillaries?
Po2 =40mmHg & Pco2=45mmHg
What is the PP of O2 and Co2 during external respiration leaving capillaries?
Po2=104mmHg & Pco2=40mmHg
What is the purpose of ventilation-Perfusion coupling?
maintain air flow and blood flow into proper proportions for efficient gas exchange
when air flow is restricted what happens to the arterioles & bronchioles?
arterioles-->constrict & bronchioles-->dilate
what is the job of the conducting zone?
conduct air & warm, humidify & cleanse the air en route to the respiratory zone
what is involved in the respiratory system?
pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of gases, internal respiration
what is henrys law?
more CO2 than O2 dissolves in liquid when both gases are at the same pressure because oxygen is only 1/20 as soluble as Co2
what is the hilum?
indented area of an organ where blood or lymph vessels and nerves come in and out
deep breathing uses forceful contractions of what muscles?
inspiratory muscles and additional accessory muscles to produce larger changes in volume--also, scalenes and sternocleidomastoid
what is the pressure difference between intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressure called?
during deep or forced inspiration what other muscles are also involved?
scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor
forced expiration is an active process that involves what muscles?
abdominal wall muscles-primarily the oblique and transversus muscles
what happens to the diaphram & external intercostal muscles during quiet expiration?
the diaphram and external intercostal muscles relaxe and the elastic lungs and thoracic wall recoil inward
During inspiration what do the intercostal muscles and sternum do?
external intercostal muscles elevate the rib cage--the sternum moves anteriorly (forward)
During quiet inspiration what happens to the diaphram and the external intercostal muscle?
what is the role of surfactant-secreting cells in the alveoli?
cuboidal cells found within an alveolus that secretes surfactant which coats the alveolar surface and lowers the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
inferior to oropharynx, superior to esophagus, starts just inferior to epiglottis and is continuous with esophogus
inferior to nasopharynx, superior to laryngopharynx : from soft palate to just slightly inferior to epiglottis
what is boyles law?
volume changes lead to pressure changes --pressure changes lead to flow of gases to equalize the pressure
the lungs fill with air when what happens?
the atmospheric pressure is greater than alveolar pressure
freshly oxygenated blood is conveyed by the respiratory zones of the lungs to heart by what?
what is tidal volume?
amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under normal resting conditions(500ml)
what is inspiratory reserve volume(IRV)?
amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation(3100ml)
what is expiratory reserve volume(ERV)
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation(1200)ml
what is vital capacity?
maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after maximal inspiration(4800) ml
the skeleton of the respiratory tract is cartilaginous down to where?
the smallest airways(bronchioles)
what muscles are involved in forced inspiration?:
scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, external intercostals and diaphram
what muscles are involved in forced expiration?
internal oblique and transverse abdominus, internal intercostals and abdominals
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