what is the atmospheric gas mixture?
O2 , CO2, N2, H2O
what percentage does O2 make up up the atmospheric pressure?
What percentage does CO2 make up of the atmospheric pressure?
What percentage does N2 make up of atmospheric pressure?
what is the partial pressure of O2 at atmospheric pressure?
what is the partial pressure of CO2 at atmospheric pressure?
.3 mm Hg
what is the partial pressure of N2 at atmospheric pressure?
597 mm Hg
what is the partial pressure of H2O at atmospheric pressure?
3.5 mm Hg
Effecient "external" respiration depends on what three factors?
PP gradients & gas solubilities-matching of alveolar ventilation & pulmonary blood perfusion-structural characteristics of the respiratory membrane
what are the two factors that promote gas exchange during "internal" respiration/
simple diffusion and pp grandients of O2 and CO2
What are the factors that cause the PP of gases in the alveoli(lungs) to differ from pressure in the atmosphere?
Humidification of inhaled air and gas exchange between alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
what is external respiration?
Lungs ---->into capillaries
what is internal respiration?
what is the pp of O2 and Co2 during external respiration going into capillaries?
Po2 =40mmHg & Pco2=45mmHg
What is the PP of O2 and Co2 during external respiration leaving capillaries?
Po2=104mmHg & Pco2=40mmHg
What is the purpose of ventilation-Perfusion coupling?
maintain air flow and blood flow into proper proportions for efficient gas exchange
when air flow is restricted what happens to the arterioles & bronchioles?
arterioles-->constrict & bronchioles-->dilate
what is ventilation?
amount of gas reaching the alveoli in the lungs
what is perfusion?
blood flow in pulmonary capillaries
The lungs empty when?
the intra-alveolar(pulmonary)pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure
when does inspiration begin?
w/the contraction of the inspiratory muscles
The expanding thoracic cavity pulls on what?
the parietal pleura
what is the job of the conducting zone?
conduct air & warm, humidify & cleanse the air en route to the respiratory zone
what makes up the conducting zone?
External nares(nose) to the end of the terminal bronchioles
what makes up the lower respiratory system?
Trachea to the alveoli
what makes up the upper respiratory system?
what is involved in the respiratory system?
pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of gases, internal respiration
what is the main function of the respiratory system?
supply O2 to the body cells and to remove CO2
what is a clinical application of Henrys law?
hyperbaric oxygen chamber
what is henrys law?
more CO2 than O2 dissolves in liquid when both gases are at the same pressure because oxygen is only 1/20 as soluble as Co2
What is the most distal segment of the conducting zone?
what removes the debri in the alveoli?
what is the hilum?
indented area of an organ where blood or lymph vessels and nerves come in and out
what is the root of the lung called?
how many lobes does the right lung have?
which bronchi is shorter and more likely to get a cheetoh stuck in it?
a decrease in surfactant will result in what to compliance?
what is fibrosis?
fibrosis will do what to compliance?
what is compliance?
stretchy nous of the tubes
If transpulmonary pressure equals zero what will happen to the lungs?
they will collapse
what pressure is always negative and helps keep the lungs inflated?
intra pleural pressure
If the volume in the lungs is up what will the pressure be?
what are the functions of the nasal cavity?
warm and moisten air, filter, aids in smell
what is the actual site of gas exchange?
deep breathing uses forceful contractions of what muscles?
inspiratory muscles and additional accessory muscles to produce larger changes in volume--also, scalenes and sternocleidomastoid
deep experation is what kind of process?
what is the pressure in the lungs called?
Intra pulmonary pressure(intra-alveolar)
what is the pressure difference between intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressure called?
what is another name for pharyngeal tonsil?
what are the three functions of the larynx?
voice production, switch mechanism, air flow
during deep or forced inspiration what other muscles are also involved?
scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor
Quiet expiration depends more on what than muscle contraction?
forced expiration is an active process that involves what muscles?
abdominal wall muscles-primarily the oblique and transversus muscles
what happens to the diaphram during quiet expiration?
It moves superiorly
what happens to the diaphram & external intercostal muscles during quiet expiration?
the diaphram and external intercostal muscles relaxe and the elastic lungs and thoracic wall recoil inward
what does the diaphram do during inspiration?
During inspiration what do the intercostal muscles and sternum do?
external intercostal muscles elevate the rib cage--the sternum moves anteriorly (forward)
During quiet inspiration what happens to the diaphram and the external intercostal muscle?
what is the alveoli?
thin walled air filled sacs in which gas exchange occurs
what is the role of surfactant-secreting cells in the alveoli?
cuboidal cells found within an alveolus that secretes surfactant which coats the alveolar surface and lowers the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
what is boyles law?
the relationship between the pressure and volume of gases
inferior to oropharynx, superior to esophagus, starts just inferior to epiglottis and is continuous with esophogus
posterior to soft palate, superior to oropharynx
inferior to nasopharynx, superior to laryngopharynx : from soft palate to just slightly inferior to epiglottis
what kind of tissue does the pharynx have?
what kind of tissue do the bronchioles have?
How many lobes does the left lung have>
the intrapleural pressure is slightly lower than what?
than intra-alveolar pressure
what are the inspiratory muscles?
diaphram and external intercostals
what is pulmonary ventilation?
inspiration & expiration
what is boyles law?
volume changes lead to pressure changes --pressure changes lead to flow of gases to equalize the pressure
what is the medical term for lung collapse?
what determines the size of the lungs?
size of the transpulmonary pressure
what is intrapleural pressure?
the pressure in the pleural cavity
what is atmospheric pressure?
760mmHg pressure exerted by that air(gases) surrounding the body
the thoracic cavity pulling on the parietal pleura does what?
increases its volume
the lungs fill with air when what happens?
the atmospheric pressure is greater than alveolar pressure
freshly oxygenated blood is conveyed by the respiratory zones of the lungs to heart by what?
systemic venous blood that is to oxygenated in the lungs is delivered by what?
what is the name for the presence of air in the intrapleural space?
what is intrapulmonary pressure?
the pressure in the alveoli(lung sac)
what is tidal volume?
amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under normal resting conditions(500ml)
what is inspiratory reserve volume(IRV)?
amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation(3100ml)
what is expiratory reserve volume(ERV)
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation(1200)ml
what is vital capacity?
maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after maximal inspiration(4800) ml
vital capacity equals what?
VT=tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume
what is the upper tract lined with?
respiratory mucosa(except lower pharanx-stratified squamous)
the skeleton of the respiratory tract is cartilaginous except where?
NOSE AND PHARYNX
the skeleton of the respiratory tract is cartilaginous down to where?
the smallest airways(bronchioles)
what keeps the lungs from collapsing?
the relationship between pressure and volume is known as what law?
is pulmonary pressure up or down during inspiration?
what is the most negative during inspiration?
what is immediate lung collapse called?
when bronchiole constrict what will happen to resistance?
it will go up
what will happen to airflow if bronchioles constrict?
what two important factors play a role in ventilation?
diaphram and intercostals
Histamine does what to bronchioles?
resistance goes up and airflow goes down
what does epinephrine do to bronchioles?
what does epinephrine do to the resistance of bronchioles?
down because it dilates bronchioles
acetycholine does what to bronchioles?
what muscles are involved in forced inspiration?:
scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, external intercostals and diaphram
what muscles are involved in expiration?
internal intercostals and abdominals
what muscles are involved in forced expiration?
internal oblique and transverse abdominus, internal intercostals and abdominals
what causes sever cough relex?
what is the intra pulmonary pressure?
what is the intra pleural pressure?
what is the transpulmonary pressure?
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