Pinel Biopsychology Ch. 16 cards
Terms in this set (47)
lateralization of function
The term used to describe the differences between the two different brain hemispheres.
Subjects whose left and right hemispheres have been separated by commissurotomy.
A brain-damage produced deficit in the ability to produce or comprehend language.
The idea that one hemisphere(usually the left) assumes a dominant role in the control of brain output.
According to the idea of cerebral dominance, the left hemisphere was regarded as being the hemisphere that was mostly responsible for our complex cognitive processes. Thus, it was called the ____ hemisphere
According to the idea of cerebral dominance, the right hemisphere isn't involved as much as the left in influencing our complex cognitive processes.
sodium amytal test
A test used to see how each hemisphere affects functioning. In the test, a bit of sodium amytal is used to isolate a part of the brain. Then, the patient is subjected to a test that measures their ability to function with their active hemisphere.
dichotic listening test
A noninvasive test used to measure how the brain processes information. During the test, a series of numbers are said aloud in different directions. Results of this study have suggested that the left hemisphere plays a bigger role in language processing.
It was once believed that males had more lateralized brains than females. However, this claim has come under increased scrutiny, with no recent evidence supporting the notion.
Have there been observed differences in brain lateralization among the sexes?
The largest cerebral commisure. Paradoxically, it doesn't seem to have much of an effect on the functioning of the brain.
It was discovered that the corpus callosum plays a role in the transferring of information between hemispheres. However, it was also discovered that complete lesions of the corpus callosum produce completely independent and functional brain parts.
What are the functions of the corpus callosum?
The cat experiment supported the idea that split brains are just as capable of learning and processing new information as connected brains. Thus, it was found that split brains have the capacity to function as two separate brains.
What was discovered about split brains after the famous cat experiment?
A mechanism by which a split brain can communicate with each other. This is accomplished through the production of neural signals that travel up through the brain stem.
helping hand phenomenon
The phenomenon observed when the left hand, thinking that an error is being made, grabs and prevents the right hand from grabbing an object.
chimeric figures test
A test used to see how each iplsilateral side of the brain undergoes the process of completion.
Lens designed to assess the capabilities of each brain hemisphere.
It has been observed that emotionally influenced events spark communication between split brains. It has also been seen that communication between split brains increase when presented with complex tasks.
What are some instances where split brains communicate with one another?
No. A popular misconception is that most functions involve the use of one part of the brain, when in fact most functions use both parts of it. The point to make is that most functions involve more of one part of the brain than the other.
Do most functions involve the use of only one part of the brain?
Studies have found that lesions to the left hemisphere create more problems to the ipsilateral side of the body than vice versa. Thus, it has been speculated that the left hemisphere plays more of an active role in motor coordination.
Which part of the brain has been seen to have more of an active role in ipsilateral movement?
It has been seen that the right hemisphere plays more into spatial, emotional, and musical abilities.
In what ways is the right hemisphere of the brain superior to the left side when it comes to cognitive processes?
an underlying neural mechanism that assesses patterns and tries to make sense of them.
the area of the frontal lobe cortex that lies in Broca's area.
the part of the brain that comprises of Wernicke's area.
Part of the brain where the primary auditory cortex is located.
analytic-synthetic theory of cerebral asymmetry
This theory postulates that the left hemisphere was conceived to think in a logical, computer-like manner, whereas the right hemisphere was constructed to think more synthetically
motor theory of motor asymmetry
This theory states that the left hemisphere is primarily specialized for motor control, and is thus responsible for speech production.
This theory challenges the motor theory of motor asymmetry by claiming that the left hemisphere of the brain specializes in language, not motor controls.
Studies have found that primates are capable of interpreting a wide range of sounds from calls. This suggests that a nonhuman species inability to produce language may be due to their incapability of fine tuning their voices.
What have studies found about primates in regards to vocalization and comprehension?
motor theory of speech perception
This theory postulates that language perception is dependent on how the words activate the neural circuits that contribute to our memory.
Lesions to Broca's area would hinder your ability to express yourself through speech.
Lesions to Broca's area would produce what kind of deficits?
Lesions to Wernicke's area would hinder your ability to comprehend written and spoken language.
Lesions to Wernicke's area would produce what kind of deficits?
The pathway that connects Wernicke's and Broca's area.
an area of the brain that responsible for comprehending language-related visual input.
Inability to read
Inability to write
The model that displays how we comprehend and produce language.
The sequence goes as followed: Primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and finally the primary motor cortex.
When we're listening, how does our brain process what we heard and subsequently produces our response?
The sequence goes as followed: The primary visual cortex( located in the occipital lobe), the angular gyrus, Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and then the primary motor cortex.
When we're reading, how does our brain process what we read?
They indicated that the functioning of language occurs through numerous parts of the brain, not just one particular area.
What did the findings from Ojemans study seem to indicate?
The CNA operates on three premises:
1. Most parts of the brain take part in numerous cognitive processes.
2. Many functions are possible as a result of processes in the brain that occur in different locations.
3. Areas that play a role in language processing are small and disperse.
What does the cognitive neuroscience approach explain about language processing and production in the brain?
An inherited condition that causes difficulty in reading.
Reading problems caused by brain damage
Many experts believe that dyslexia is caused by a hindrance in phonological processing.
What is believed to be the underlying cause of dyslexia?
The English language consists of many more phonemes than most languages.
Why is it that English speakers have a more difficult time dealing with dyslexia than speakers of other cultures?
A procedure in which a person is asked to recite what was read/said to them.This is used for reading familiar words.
A procedure in which a person sounds out the letters of a word before expressing it. This is used for reading unfamiliar words.
Surface dyslexics have problems with comprehending the shapes of words, whereas deep dyslexics have trouble with applying rules of pronunciation.
What is the difference between surface and deep dyslexics?
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