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23 terms

Enlightenment

STUDY
PLAY
Dennis Diderot
1713-1784
organized Encyclopedia, spread Enlightenment thought
memory, reason, imagination
Thomas Hobbes
before Enlightenment, published political views after English executed king, pessimistic
mankind is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short
believed in strong government: human necessity
John Locke
English, wrote political views after Glorious Revolution
people of product of training/education/experience
life, liberty, property
government created to protect right
people can/should change improper govt
Baron de Montesquieu
upset about abuse of royal power, wrote Spirit of the Laws, methods of natural science apply to govt
separation of power idea, 3 branches-legislative, executive, judicial, french
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French, wrote Social Contract
contract between citizens, between society and government contrary to hobbes idea that the contract was between an individual and govt
ruler should be removed if not ruling properly
mercantilism
economic style of colonialism
trade within themselves
self-sufficient
colonies
Adam Smith
defined ideas of capitalism through the wealth of nations
govt should defend property
invisible hand
laiseez faire/free market economics
scottish
Sir Isaac Newton
gravity-very important
3 laws-force=ma, for every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction, every object in motion stays in motion
rules out St.Aquinas first mover theory
rules out superstition
leads to age of reason
laws of motion and gravity apply to earth and heavens,etc
bill of rights
parliament should meet regularly
kings power restricted
-only parliament can dismiss parliament
-parliament can talk about whatever
-king can not pass laws without parliament consent
-king can not change taxes
voltaire
french satirist
likes to ridicule society
hates intolerable religion, french govt, religious bigotry
hates othes who condemn people on religious beliefs
made newtons works popular
enlightenment thinker
deism
against organized religion
everything happens because god initiated it
watchmaker god
like daoist
nicolaus copernicus
planets and everything revolves around sun
church against heliocentric universe and doesnt attack him because he dies to soon
polish
reformation happens after death
ideas were logic not observational based
immanuel kant
defines enlightenment-mans ability to think for himself
johannes kepler
has more observational /studying/data evidence that the world is heliocentric and eliptical orbital universe
ideas were a response to Tychos gelocentic ideas
costitutional states
england, netherlands
absolute states
france, spain, russia, prussia
English civil war
in england they are having some trouble btw monarch and parliament for a while
puritans rise up and start english civil war
cavalries:
king, aristocracy, church, goal is to strengthen monarchy,push anglican church
vs
roundheads:
puritan, presbyterian, urban middle class, business people, they want stronger parliament and more religious freedom
Oliver Cromwell
parliamentary forces under him behead charles I and take over and restores monarchy, puritan regime
william of orange
conflict comes back btw king and parliament
parliament wants the daughter of king james I and husband william to take over
he is dutchmen
nonviolently takes throne-called Glorious revolution
to get england had to agree to bill of rights
Act of Union
1707-england,scotland,wales now a united kingdom of britain/great britain
George of Hanover
takes over after queen anne-all her close relatives were catholic
only speaks german
hanover kings-everyone dies-bc he didnt speak english or care about g.b.
Robert Walpole
becomes the first prime minister in action,not officially named though
after hanover parliament made rule that the head of the dominant political party becomes the de facto ruler
The Fronde
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