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Dennis Diderot

organized Encyclopedia, spread Enlightenment thought
memory, reason, imagination

Thomas Hobbes

before Enlightenment, published political views after English executed king, pessimistic
mankind is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short
believed in strong government: human necessity

John Locke

English, wrote political views after Glorious Revolution
people of product of training/education/experience
life, liberty, property
government created to protect right
people can/should change improper govt

Baron de Montesquieu

upset about abuse of royal power, wrote Spirit of the Laws, methods of natural science apply to govt
separation of power idea, 3 branches-legislative, executive, judicial, french

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

French, wrote Social Contract
contract between citizens, between society and government contrary to hobbes idea that the contract was between an individual and govt
ruler should be removed if not ruling properly


economic style of colonialism
trade within themselves

Adam Smith

defined ideas of capitalism through the wealth of nations
govt should defend property
invisible hand
laiseez faire/free market economics

Sir Isaac Newton

gravity-very important
3 laws-force=ma, for every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction, every object in motion stays in motion
rules out St.Aquinas first mover theory
rules out superstition
leads to age of reason
laws of motion and gravity apply to earth and heavens,etc

bill of rights

parliament should meet regularly
kings power restricted
-only parliament can dismiss parliament
-parliament can talk about whatever
-king can not pass laws without parliament consent
-king can not change taxes


french satirist
likes to ridicule society
hates intolerable religion, french govt, religious bigotry
hates othes who condemn people on religious beliefs
made newtons works popular
enlightenment thinker


against organized religion
everything happens because god initiated it
watchmaker god
like daoist

nicolaus copernicus

planets and everything revolves around sun
church against heliocentric universe and doesnt attack him because he dies to soon
reformation happens after death
ideas were logic not observational based

immanuel kant

defines enlightenment-mans ability to think for himself

johannes kepler

has more observational /studying/data evidence that the world is heliocentric and eliptical orbital universe
ideas were a response to Tychos gelocentic ideas

costitutional states

england, netherlands

absolute states

france, spain, russia, prussia

English civil war

in england they are having some trouble btw monarch and parliament for a while
puritans rise up and start english civil war
king, aristocracy, church, goal is to strengthen monarchy,push anglican church
puritan, presbyterian, urban middle class, business people, they want stronger parliament and more religious freedom

Oliver Cromwell

parliamentary forces under him behead charles I and take over and restores monarchy, puritan regime

william of orange

conflict comes back btw king and parliament
parliament wants the daughter of king james I and husband william to take over
he is dutchmen
nonviolently takes throne-called Glorious revolution
to get england had to agree to bill of rights

Act of Union

1707-england,scotland,wales now a united kingdom of britain/great britain

George of Hanover

takes over after queen anne-all her close relatives were catholic
only speaks german
hanover kings-everyone dies-bc he didnt speak english or care about g.b.

Robert Walpole

becomes the first prime minister in action,not officially named though
after hanover parliament made rule that the head of the dominant political party becomes the de facto ruler

The Fronde


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