Terms in this set (39)
Sexual contact that is committed without the other party's consent or with a party who is not capable of giving consent (such as a child or mentally handicapped individual).
there are 3 levels of sexual assault in canada
level 1 sexual assault
minor physical injury or no physical injury to victim
conviction punishable by up to 10 years
*whether consent has been freely given is a central issue
level 2 sexual assault
perpetrator uses or threatens to use a weapon, threatens victim's friends/family, causes bodily harm to a third party, multiple assailants
conviction punishable by up to 14 years
level 3 sexual assault
sexual assault that wounds, maims, or disfigures the victim
conviction punishable by up to life in prison
Canadian Law and sexual assault
perspective that sexual assault is an act of power/dominance rather than an act of sex
there is no statute of limitations for sexual assault (victim can go to the police years later and charges can still be laid)
recognizes that sexual assault is gender-neutral (men and women can assault, hetero and homosexually)
acknowledges that it can be committed by a victim's spouse
in a college sample of males (survey about coercion)
1-14% had been raped
27% experienced verbal coercion leading to sex
73% experienced any unwanted sexual behaviour
the imposition of sexual activity on someone through the verbal threats, verbal pressure, intimidation, blackmailing, guilting, etc
ie: manipulation until someone gives in to sexual assault
in a study of rates of coercion among people in relationships
31%F and 19.6%M reported being sexually coerced in their current relationship
62%F and 35%M reported being sexually coerced in their previous relationship
what is the most primarily reported form of coercion?
verbal coercion and unwanted sexual contact after arguing
what 2 data sources does Stats Can rely on to track incidence of sexual assault?
Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR): tracks the number of substantiated sexual assaults reported to police
General Social Survey (GSS): asks Canadians whether they've been victims of sexual assault (includes incidents that may have gone unreported)
According to the UCR, how many sexual assaults were reported in Canada in 2009, and at what level?
21 000 assaults, 95% of them classified as level 1
the total number of sexual assaults reported to police peaked in 1993 and has been __________ ever since
*including a 4% decline from 2008-2009
number of level __ assaults has decreased, but number of level ___ and ___ have remained fairly stable since 1993
level 1 has decreased
level 2 and 3 have remained stable since 1993
for level 3 assaults that are reported to the police, victimization rates are __ times greater for women than for men
4 times greater for women
According to the 2007 UCR, where in Canada has the highest rate of sexual assaults?
territories had the most: #1 Nunavut, #2 Northwestern Terr., #3 Yukon
out of the provinces: Saskatchewan, Manitoba
lowest rates: Ontario and PEI
what did most incidents of sexual assault consist of according to the 2009 GSS?
81% of cases involved unwanted kissing, touching, grabbing, fondling
about 1 in 5 involved more serious attacks
in _________ of cases, perpetrators are friends, acquaintances, or neighbors of the victims
MORE THAN HALF!
researchers estimate that only __ in 10 sexually assaults in Canada are actually reported to the police
1 in 10
in Canada, there has been a rising incidence of drug-facilitated sexual-assault. What do these drugs do and what are some examples?
drugs are mixed into drinks -- odourless and tasteless
- often cause amnesia for up to 12hrs (vitcims don't really remember, unlikely to report incidents)
ex: GHB, Rohypnol
* a survey found that 20.9% of sexual assaults in Ontario were drug facilitated
What are the types of sexual assault?
Stranger Sexual Assault
sexual assault that is committed by an assailant previously unknown to the person who is assaulted
makes up for only 18% of incidents
Acquaintance Sexual Assault
sexual assault by an acquaintance of the person who is assaulted
much less likely to be reported to the police than stranger sexual assault
victims may not perceive it as being sexual assault
2007 URC indicates that 82% of victims knew their assailant in some way
-- 51% by friends/acquaintance
-- 28% assaulted by family members
Date Sexual Assault
one of the most common kinds of sexual assault
often a mistunderstanding of cues (wanna come upstairs? no meaning yes, etc)
sexual assault charges from dating situation usually come down to his word against hers, and hers will be less persuasive if she agreed to have dinner with him, go home with him, etc
gang sexual assault
exercise of power as major motive
tend to be more vicious than individual assaults
relatively few survivors of gang assaults reported the attacks to police or sought support
rates for sexual assault of males are far lower than those against females, but incidents are much more common that most people assume. most of these assaults are committed by:
most are not gay, but hetero with motives or domination/contol, revenge/retaliation, sadism/degredation, status/affiliation
usually carried out by gang members
often occur in prison but definitely not always
male survivors tend to suffer _____physical injury than females, but at least equal emotional/psychological damage
more often attacked by multiple assailants, held captive longer, more reluctant to report
14% of gay and bisexual males in BC asked if they'd ever been forced into unwanted sex. 14% reported that...
they had been coerced into sex before 14
- and half of these reported incidents of forced anal sex
Partner or Marital Sexual Assault
ILLEGAL IN CANADA
more common than date rape because relationships has already been established
some men believe it's his wife's duty to satisfy his sexual needs, even if she doesn't want to
likely go unreported
can occur within a pattern of violence/physical intimidation
based on lecture, what is the definition of consent?
consent is clearly communicating YES and clearly indicating that you want to engage in sexual activity
you can only consent for yourself
you must be ABLE to verbally give consent
implying NO through behaviour is just as good as saying no
you can stop/change your mind at any time
people in positions of power cannot abuse it to get sexual activity
what are some of the common social attitudes and myths?
- women say no when they mean yes
- women like men who are pushy and forceful
- women dress in a way that invites assault
- deep down, women want to be assaulted
found that belief in sexual-assault myths are NOT predictive of coercive male behaviour
what are characteristics of sexually coercive men?
more likely to have experienced childhood abuse
more sex partners in adolescence
deviant sexual fantasies during childhood/adolescence
most are not mentally ill, but many have anti-social personality disorders
*no one type of man commits sexual assault (different healths, backgrounds, criminal histories)
anti-social personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others.
what are some of effects on the daily life of a sexual assault survivor?
in crisis for days/weeks after attack
- insomnia, crying, eating problems, headaches, irritability, anxiety, depression, cystitis (bladder infection)
emotional distress tends to peak about 3 weeks after the assault and persists for a month or two before getting better
what are some of the main reasons for victims not reporting the assault to the police?
fear of retaliation
emotional stress of trial
victims do tend to turn to freinds, family, co-workers, doctors though
psychological disorders resulting from sexual assault
develop fears associated with the trauma (ex: raped in elevator, now scared of riding in elevators)
treatment of sexual assault survivors
2 stage process
1) help victim through the crisis after the attack (provide support, info, develop coping strategies)
2) foster long-term adjustment
psychotherapy can help deal with emotional consequences, avoid self blame, improve self-esteem, establish loving relationships
crisis centres, hotlines, peer-counseling groups, referral agencies provide support (mostly all volunteers)
how can we prevent sexual assault?
educational interventions at colleges/universities have seemed to decrease incidence
ultimately, we need cultural change of attitudes, thought
- til then, women need to take precautions (unfortunate that victim has to take responsibility to stay safe)
should you confront an attacker?
some women have had success warding off attacks by pleading, crying, screaming, running away
self-defence can help fend them off, but it can also provoke them to be more aggressive