Anti-parasitics and Anti-fungals

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Terms in this set (...)

Life Cycle of Malaria Parasites
Tissue schizonticides
• Blood schizonticides
• Gametocides
Species of Malaria
1. Plasmodium falciparum
- Serious complications
2. P. vivax
3. P. malariae
4. P. ovale
Antiprotazoal Drugs
• Chloroquine (Aralen)
• Quinine (Qualaquin)
• Quinidine
• Mefloquine
• Primaquine
• Atovaquone and Proguanil (Malarone)
Chloroquine (Aralen)
• Synthetic 4-aminoquinoline

• MOA:
- Blood schizonticide
- Interferes with metabolism and hemoglobin utilization by parasites
- Moderately effective against gametocytes of P vivax, P ovale, & P malariae
Chloroquine (Aralen)
• Pharmacokinetics
- Rapid and almost complete absorption in GI tract
- Cmax: 3 hours
- Excreted in urine
- Initial t1/2 3-5 days;; terminal t1/2 1-2 months
Chloroquine (Aralen)
Chloroquine (Aralen)
Quinine (Qualaquin)
Quinine (Qualaquin)
Pharmacokinetics
Quinine (Qualaquin)
Quinine (Qualaquin)
ADR and contrainditions
Quinidine
• Dextrorotatory stereoisomerr* of quinine
• Used in severe cases of malaria including
falciparum malaria
• Similar ADR's, contraindications and precautions to quinine
Primaquine
Primaquine
Pharmacokinetics
Primaquine
Indications:
Primaquine
ADR
PRECAUTION
CONTRAINDICATIONS
Atovaquone and Proguanil (Malarone) MOA
Atovaquone and Proguanil (Malarone)
• Pharmacokinetics
Atovaquone and Proguanil (Malarone)
INDICATION
Atovaquone and Proguanil (Malarone)
ADR
CONTRAINDICATION
Artemeter-lumefantrine (Coartem)
MOA
INDICATION
ADR
Mefloquine
Mefloquine
• Pharmacokinetics
Mefloquine
INDICATIONS
Mefloquine
ADR AND CONTRAINDICATIONS
Malaria Summary - Chemoprophylaxis
Malaria Summary - Treatment
Iodoquinol (Yodoxin)
Iodoquinol (Yodoxin)
ADR and PRECAUTIONS
Antihelminthic Drugs
Albendazole (Albenza)
MOA and INDICATIONS
Albendazole (Albenza)
ADR
Ivermectin (Stromectol)
Ivermectin (Stromectol) INDICATIONS
Ivermectin (Stromectol)
ADR
Praziquantel (Biltricide)
Praziquantel (Biltricide)
ADMINISTRATION
and ADR
Summary
Classification
Polyenes alteration of fungal cell membrane
Azoles inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis ( fungal cell membrane)
Echinocandins inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis
5- flucytosine inhibitor of DNA
5-FU
FUNGAL CELL WALL
Amphotericin B
Amphotericin B
MOA
Amphotericin B - ADR's
Flucytosine 5-FC
MOA
Flucytosine 5-FC
PHARMACOKINETICS
Flucytosine 5-FC
SPECTRUM OF ACTIVITY
ADR
Azoles
AZOLES
MOA and ADR
Azole comparison
Echinocandin= antifungal, inhibit FUNGAL cell wall beta-GLUCAN
Echinocandin comparison
Antifungal Spectrum of Activity
Antifungal Pharmacokinetics