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intro to personality- brandy

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Intrapersonal processes include
the emotions that we experience.
________ theories of personality apply the insights and methods derived from the study of perception, memory, and thought to the study of personality.
Learning and cognitive
Personality psychology and clinical psychology overlap most often when approaching
personality disorders
Which of the following is not part of the psychological triad?
psychological health
Personality psychology emphasizes how people are ________, whereas subfields such as cognitive and social psychology emphasize how people are ________.
different from each other; similar to each other
The task of an employer who attempts to identify dependable, conscientious, and hard-working job applicants is similar to the task of the ________ psychologist, who attempts to identify and assess individual differences.
trait
The personality paradigm that focuses on rewards and punishments is known as the ________ paradigm.
behaviorist
Psychologists following the phenomenological approach
are concerned with our conscious experience of the world and the consequences of having free will.
In observing human behavior, it is impossible
to understand everything about a person all at once.
What two topics are covered under the phenomenological approach
humanistic and cross-cultural perspectives on personality
The trait approach, the behaviorist approach, and the psychoanalytic approach
address different sets of questions about human psychology.
The purpose of a basic approach (or paradigm) is
to limit inquiry to certain kinds of observations and patterns.
Personality psychologists who adhere to the ________ approach focus on identifying, conceptualizing, and measuring the ways in which people differ psychologically from one another.
trait
Advocates of any particular basic approach to personality historically
proudly asserted that they have deliberately limited what they have chosen to look at
Personality psychology has a variety of theoretical perspectives that are sometimes seen as competing with each other. Regarding this diversity, a major theme of this textbook is:
great strengths are usually great weaknesses.
In the Funder and Ozer reader, McAdams calls Level III evaluation
the level of identity as a life story.
Personality psychology shares with clinical psychology
a common obligation to try to understand the whole person.
Jeff suspects that his roommate's sexist jokes may indicate that his roommate has some hidden, unconscious hostility toward women or that he feels very insecure around women. Jeff's analysis suggests a ________ approach to personality.
psychoanalytic
Personality psychologists adhering to the ________ approach focus on psychic energy, the workings of the unconscious mind, and the nature and resolution of internal mental conflict.
psychoanalytic
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic approaches to personality?
assessment
The unique mandate of personality psychologists is to attempt
to explain whole, functioning persons in their social context.
In the Funder and Ozer reader, McAdams calls dispositional traits
superficial, reductionistic labels.
Psychologists typically can predict L data quite easily.
false
The fact that much of modern empirical research in psychology has been based on white, middle-class college sophomores may reduce the ________ of psychological research.
generalizability
The technical meaning of reliability concerns
how much measurement error is present in your assessment instrument.
While completing the NEO Personality Inventory, you answer True to the item "I consider myself a nervous person." Your response to this item would be an example of ________ data.
S
Psychologists who try to predict age at first marriage from personality information typically have limited success.
True
Biases in judgment essentially occur at random.
False
A personality description of a client by her or his therapist is an example of ________ data.
I
According to the text, accidental mistakes in judging personality are considered ________, whereas inaccurate judgments that are motivated by prejudices are considered ________.
errors, Biases
One concern with items on measures like the MMPI is that they often lack face validity. What kind of problem does this create?
Responses to such items are difficult to interpret.
A behavioroid measure is a combination of which two types of data?
S and B
Many research projects involve data that are blends of the S, I, B, and L types.
True
Applied psychologists involved in personnel selection are less concerned with error variance than research psychologists.
False
Imagine that you could draw a straight horizontal line through the points on a scatter plot depicting the relation between X and Y. Which of the following is the closest value to the correlation coefficient that you would compute from these data?
0
The most important advantage of B data is that they are based on
direct observations of behavior, so they are more objective and quantifiable.
A method or instrument that provides the same information repeatedly is
reliable
According to the text, real science is the cataloging of facts already known with certainty.
False
Validity is much easier judge than reliability.
False
The judgments that others make of your personality affect your opportunities and expectancies. Thus, these judgments have
casual force
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of B data?
Direct observations require little in the way of psychological interpretation.
In simple language, questions about reliability concern ________, whereas questions about validity concern ________.
consistency; accuracy
A researcher wants to evaluate the correlation between extraversion and happiness. What is the null hypothesis in this analysis?
Extraversion is uncorrelated with happiness.
Many researchers study the behavior of college students and then assume that what they learn applies to people in general. This practice may place limits on
the generalizability of their findings over participants.
Because each kind of data has limitations, personality psychologists should
gather as much data as possible.
Assume that you are studying 200 participants, all of whom are sick. An experimental drug is given to 100 of them; the other 100 are given nothing. If the correlation between taking the drug and living is ?.26, then ________ percent of those who got the drug would still be alive at the end of the study.
63
According to the textbook, there are no perfect ________ of personality, only _______.
indicators; clues
Which of the following psychologists is often credited with starting the person-situation debate?
Walter Mischel
In his book Personality and Assessment, Mischel argued that
behavior is too inconsistent to predict using broad personality traits.
Which of the following is NOT part of the situationist argument?
Persons and situations interact to predict behavior.
Which of the following behaviors would be the easiest to predict accurately?
David will generally be on time for work next week
In real life, personality traits and situational features are uncorrelated.
False
The trait of neuroticism is associated with unhappiness.
True
A social psychologist who focuses on statistical significance is concerned with ________, whereas a personality researcher who focuses on effect sizes is concerned with ________.
documenting the existence of an effect; quantifying the size of an effect
Happiness is associated with what trait?
extroversion
One result of the person-situation debate was that many social psychologists concluded that personality did not really exist.
true
If there is a positive correlation between extraversion and risk taking, then the
higher a person's extraversion score, the more risks he or she is likely to take.
One response to Mischel's critique asserts that a fair review of the research on the predictability of behavior from personality traits indicates that
the predictability of behavior from personality traits is better than is sometimes acknowledged.
Individuals high in the trait of extraversion tend to die younger than individuals who are lower in extraversion.
false
Which of the following would be an example of using a moderator variable approach to improve the predictability of behavior from personality?
determining if the behavior of high self-monitors is less consistent than that of low self-monitors
In his book Personality and Assessment, Mischel argued that behavior can be most accurately predicted from
situations
Interactionism is the view that traits and situations work with each other to produce behavior.
true
The avoidance of drug abuse is associated with what trait?
conscientiousness
Measurements of weight are made on what kind of scale?
a ratio scale
Traditionally, the usual practice in evaluating the degree to which behavior is affected by the situation has been to
determine the percentage of variance accounted for by personality, subtract that from 100 percent, and then assign the remaining percentage of the variance, by default, to the situation.
Historically, personality psychologists have concentrated on ________ to evaluate the effects of personality variables, whereas social psychologists have concentrated on ________ to evaluate the effects of situational variables.
effect size; statistical significance
The trait approach is based on empirical research
that is mostly correlational in nature.
A variable that influences the association between two other variables is called a(n)________ variable.
moderator
Personality trait measurements are typically made on what kind of scale?
an ordinal scale
Henry Murray wrote the book Personality and Assessment.
false
Situationists are often concerned with precisely calculating how much situations affect behavior.
false
One kind of improvement to personality research offered in response to the situationist critique suggests identifying those individuals whose behavior is more consistent than others' behavior. This research improvement involves
using a moderator variable approach.
Which of the following is a limitation of projective tests?
Projective tests are relatively inefficient and expensive to administer.
The basis of the ________ method of test construction is to come up with items that seem directly, obviously, and logically related to what it is you wish to measure.
rational
The factor analytic technique of test construction is designed to
identify groups of test items that seem to be alike.
What is the name of the newer shorter version of the TAT?
Picture Story Exercise
Recent research using the Implicit Associations Test (IAT) to study shyness indicates that
"controlled" aspects of shyness can be predicted using S data, but uncontrolled or spontaneous aspects can be more accurately predicted using B data from instruments such as the IAT.
A strong handshake is a reliable indicator of honesty.
false
Which of the following approaches to test construction is the most atheoretical?
empirical
In a study of social expectancies, Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid (1977) found that if male participants were shown a photograph of an attractive woman and told they would be interacting with her by telephone, the female participant they actually spoke with
was rated by other people as behaving in a warm, humorous, and friendly manner.
Research on intellectual and social expectancies demonstrates that
other people's perceptions of your personality can influence who you are and what you do.
Eliminating the use of personality tests in employment screening will
not prevent traits from being judged but will change the ways they are judged.
Data supporting the validity of projective tests is widespread.
False
If you were shown an inkblot and asked to describe what you saw, you would be taking the
Rorschach test.
What is the primary criterion for item selection in the empirical method of test construction?
whether or not the item discriminates between two known groups
In making an overall judgment of your personality, which person should be most accurate?
life long best friend
The Woodworth Personality Data Sheet was designed to measure psychiatric problems in what group?
Us Army recruits
The observation, "If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it is probably a duck," illustrates the method of
convergent validation.
At least 80 percent of clinical psychologists reported using Rorschach inkblots at least occasionally.
true
According to the text, which of the following is NOT one of the conditions that must hold for an S-data personality test to work?
The test must contain both positively and negatively worded items.
When evaluated as psychometric instruments, most projective tests
do not fare very well.
The reason that objective tests include so many items is to increase the ________ of the test.
reliability
Researchers know a great deal about the characteristics of good judges of personality.
False
The improvement in reliability gained by adding additional "good" test items can be precisely calculated using what formula?
the Spearman-Brown
What term refers to personality inventories that are designed to measure a wide range of traits?
omnibus inventories
To evaluate accuracy in personality judgments, researchers often want to know if personality judgments have predictive validity.
true
The most important advantage of Q-sorting is that it
forces the judge to compare all the items directly against each other.
The most important thing to notice about a table of Q-sort correlates is the
general patterns that emerge.
Negative emotionality in Tellegen's three-factor model is closest to which trait in Eysenck's model?
neuroticism
Which of the Big Five traits appears to have the most inconsistency in terms of cross-cultural replication?
openness
Sammy is concerned about whether or not relatively extraverted adolescents become relatively extraverted adults. Sammy studies what kind of personality stability?
rank order
The Q-sort is the only way to get reliable S data using the many trait approach.
false
Research on authoritarianism helps explain the behavior of the people in Germany in the 1930s.
false
A researcher using the Big Five likely adopts the many-trait approach.
false
Hospitalized mental patients tend to get low scores on the self-monitoring scale.
True
Which trait seems to show the strongest and most noticeable mean-level increase from adolescence to adulthood?
conscientiousness
What does the "F" in the California F scale stand for?
fascism
The Big Six model is also called the HEXACO.
true
What are the Big Three traits according to Hans Eysenck?
neuroticism/extraversion/psychoticism
A researcher taking the many-trait approach to understanding personality would likely use which of the following measurement instruments?
California Q-Set
Sally is a strong proponent of the lexical hypothesis. Where would she likely begin her search for the essential traits of personality?
the dictionary
Findings from a meta-analysis of mean levels of personality traits suggest that most personality changes occur during adolescence.
False
Jack Block found that 23-year-olds who described themselves as being politically conservative were likely to have been described as _________ at age three.
easily victimized and rigid
A researcher starts with an interest in delinquency and then identifies the traits associated with that category of behavior. What approach is she taking?
a many-trait approach
Which correlates of delay of gratification were common in both girls and boys?
being planful, reflective, and reasonable
According to the text, the two larger purposes for measuring traits are to
predict and understand behavior.
People high in conscientiousness seem to avoid behaviors that involve health risks.
true
Positive emotionality in Tellegen's three-factor model is closest to which trait in Eysenck's model?
extraversion
The meta-analysis of mean-level changes in personality across the life span suggests which of the following?
Most mean-level changes in personality occur in young adulthood.
Given Snyder's description of self-monitoring, you would expect someone who is a low in self-monitor to be ________ than a high self-monitor.
easier to judge
Which of the following is NOT a positive correlate of authoritarianism?
preference for weak political candidates
Epinephrine is only found throughout the brain and central nervous system.
fase
Which brain structure is primarily associated with memory processing?
the amygdala
High levels of cortisol appear to be associated with ________, and low levels of cortisol appear to be associated with ________.
stress, anxiety, and depression; impulsivity and sensation-seeking
In one study, male U.S. military veterans were asked about their past behaviors. Those with higher testosterone levels more often reported
having assaulted others.
Which of the following chemicals breaks down certain neurotransmitters?
monoamine oxidase
According to Eysenck, differences between introverts and extraverts are attributable to the functioning of the
ascending reticular activating system (ARAS).
The case of railroad worker Phineas Gage illustrated that
injuries to the brain can affect personality and behavior.
One reason why the results of psychosurgeries are erratic is that
brain systems might be more important for functioning than discrete areas.
Damasio's patient named Elliott had brain damage to the same region that was injured in Phineas Gage.
true
In 1966, Charles Whitman killed his wife, his mother, and 14 more people at the University of Texas before he was killed by police. An autopsy revealed a tumor affecting Whitman's
amygdala
One problem researchers experience when attempting to directly link testosterone to aggression and sexuality is that
it is difficult to determine the causal direction because aggression and sex can affect testosterone levels.
What term describes the junction between two neurons?
synapse
Some research suggests that the relationship between testosterone and physical aggression holds only or most strongly for
relatively uneducated men from low economic classes.
Norepinephrine is both a neurotransmitter in the brain and a hormone in the body.
true
Which of these brain structures is thought to play a role in judging whether stimuli offer threats or rewards?
amygdala
Nerve fibers that connect nerves to each other are calledes
interneurons.
The hormone oxytocin promotes antisocial behavior.
false
Capgras syndrome arises from damage to the
right frontal lobe
The Navy improved the pass rate for pool competency in SEAL candidates by
teaching methods to control panic.
Which brain region secretes several hormones and is located just above the roof of the mouth?
hypothalamus
What brain region appears to be important for the abilities to plan ahead, anticipate consequences, and to engage in moral reasoning?
frontal lobes
Chemicals that communicate between neurons are called
neurotransmitters.
The biggest bundle of interneurons in the body is the brain.
true
What neurotransmitter is NOT typically associated with the substantia nigra?
oxytocin
Based on the information in The Brain DVD, what should you do to calm panic?
Breathe deeply, focusing on long exhalation
If there is no phenotypic variation in a trait, then the heritability of that trait will be approximately
0
The incidence of schizophrenia was measured in both MZ and DZ twins. The correlation between MZ twins was .50 and the correlation between the DZ twins was .30. What is the heritability coefficient for schizophrenia?
.40
According to a recent study about types of depression, the kind of depression that follows a social loss is characterized by
emotional pain, crying, and seeking social support.
A recent study indicates that a serotonin-related genetic allele seems to influence the development of depression in conjunction with
stressful life events.
The point of view that scientists will be able to reduce everything about the mind to biology is called
biological reductionism.
As a result of Timothy's genes, he went through puberty later than his peers. Because he was much smaller than other boys, they tended to pick on him, and he fought back to protect himself. As a young adult, Timothy is more aggressive than his peers. This scenario illustrates that his aggression is
the result of an interaction between the genetic expression and the resulting social environment.
A researcher who attempts to show how self-serving biases may have facilitated survival is taking a behavioral genetic approach.
false
All of the following are objections to evolutionary theorizing EXCEPT:
Evolutionary theory is unnecessarily complicated as it involves too many basic principles
What is the biggest confound in a typical parenting study that examines the correlation between parenting practices and the behaviors of offspring?
In most studies of parenting, parents and kids share genetic material.
What behavioral genetic research finding seems to support the conclusion that the effect of growing up in the same home environment is rather minimal?
The personality traits of adoptive siblings raised in the same family are correlated only at .05.
Most epigenetic studies have been conducted with humans.
false
Kevin is placing a personal ad in the local paper. According to evolutionary predictions about mate selection, what will he mostly likely mention when describing himself?
his financial resources
Imagine a situation in which food and water are scarce and very few children receive adequate nutrition. What will happen to the heritability coefficient for height?
it will be a small number
There is evidence that particular genes are related to certain personality characteristics and psychological difficulties.
true
Studies focused on ________ are interested in learning how early experiences shape genetic expression.
epigenetics
When placing personal ads, women are more likely to specify that they are seeking someone who is ________, whereas men are more likely to specify that they are seeking someone who is ________.
older, younger
Drawing on research about the impact of the shared family environment on personality development, Harris argued that
parents have no important long-term effects on their children's personality
Humans share about 98 percent of their genetic material with chimpanzees
true
Which of the following seems to have the lowest heritability coefficient?
severe mental retardation
The amount of time one spends watching television is genetically influenced.
true
The ________ refers to the underlying genetic structure that leads to the observable ________.
genotype; phenotype
So far, evolutionary psychology has been much more concerned with the origins of ________ than with ________.
general human nature; individual differences
The fact that the same environment affects different individuals in different ways illustrates the principle of gene-environment interactions.
true
It is widely argued the single genes have strong links to personality attributes.
false
Across a wide variety of cultures, ________ are more likely than ________ to place a higher value on physical attractiveness.
men, women
Freud called the fundamental force that was necessary for creation, protection, and enjoyment of life ________. The idea that the basic tendency of ordered systems is toward disorder and chaos is similar to Freud's concept of ________.
libido; Thanatos
Freud thought that anxiety caused by the outside world was more interesting than anxiety that originated because of conflicts within the mind.
False
________ are the result of unsuccessful attempts by the ego and superego to control forbidden impulses.
Parapraxes
What term did Freud use to describe the psychological respite or time out that occurs before the genital stage?
the latency stage
Jenny spends most of her psychic energy trying to push her memory of a recent mugging out of conscious awareness. According to Freud, if Jenny tries to write a novel, she will find that
she has little psychic energy left to spend on her writing.
Why did Freud believe that psychotherapy was beneficial?
Talking about problems helps bring those issues into conscious awareness.
Sophia tries to keep her distance from other people, especially her boyfriend. How might Freud explain this behavior?
Sally's parents were neglectful and rarely responded to her crying as an infant.
The Freudian idea that expressing anger releases energy and therefore makes you less angry has not been empirically supported.
true
Leakages of forbidden impulses from the id are called parapraxes if they are ________ and humor if they are ________.
uncontrollable, controllable
Leaving a disproportionate amount of libido behind at a childhood stage of development is called
fixation
A politician who supported severe efforts to restrict Internet access in his community to prevent the spread of child pornography was arrested and convicted for possession of child pornography. Which defense mechanism best accounts for this paradoxical behavior?
reaction formation
What is the difference between the mind and the brain?
The mind is the psychological product of the brain's activity.
The therapeutic technique that involves instructing the patient to say whatever comes to mind is called
free association.
Freud made a distinction between libido and sexual energy.
false
Experimental research evidence indicates that a person who displaces aggression will
be more inclined to be aggressive in general.
Which part of the personality is responsible for creating defense mechanisms?
ego
The genital character type
is psychologically well-adjusted.
One criticism of psychoanalytic theory is that Freud considered the development of women to be
a deviation from the male model.
What does Freud mean by identification?
the process by which a child takes on attitudes and values of the same-sex parent
According to psychoanalytic theory, no action is ever random.
true
Another name for a modern-day psychoanalyst is a(n) ________ psychologist.
ego
When a Freudian refers to "psychic conflict," he or she means that one individual's
id, ego, and superego are in conflict with each other.
When does the id emerge?
it is present at birth
The criticism of Freud's ideas that is most popular today is that ________. The criticism of Freud's ideas that was most prevalent at the time that it was first introduced was that ________.
Freud's theory is unscientific; Freud placed too much emphasis on sex and sexual energy
According to Freud, in order for a joke to be funny, the listener must have
experienced the same forbidden impulse the joke expresses.
According to Erikson, adolescents are likely to face a(n)
struggle for intimacy.
In middle age, we experience the psychosocial crisis of ________, according to Erikson.
generativity versus stagnation
According to Adler, what is social interest?
the desire to relate positively to others
Many neo-Freudians preserve Freud's spirit in their writings but reinterpret his original ideas.
true
The idea that men and women each have a masculine and a feminine side is linked to Jung's ideas about
animus and anima.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a measure of Adler's styles of life.
false
Freud's oral stage corresponds to Erikson's stage of
basic trust versus mistrust.
What is the overarching principle of object relations theory?
We relate to others through our mental images of them.
Freud's latency period corresponds to Erikson's stage of
industry versus inferiority.
In Jungian terms, the recurring images repeated in dreams, myths, and literature are called
archetypes
Mike's prototypical woman is sensitive and intelligent. Mike's idealized image of a woman is his
anemia
The Strange Situation is used to study adult attachment patterns.
false
Which sequence represents the correct order for Erikson's first three psychosocial stages?
basic trust vs. mistrust; autonomy vs. shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt
John Bowlby was the earliest psychoanalyst to develop play therapy.
false
Even most neo-Freudians rely on information from ________ to test or verify their ideas.
patient histories and introspection
The psychological goal of attachment is
to feel secure
Research suggests that avoidant children are likely to grow up to be adults who tend to
be relatively uninterested in romantic relationships.
Research suggests that anxious-ambivalent children are relatively likely to grow up to be adults who tend to
be obsessed with their romantic partners.
Erikson was a strong believer that intimacy came before identity.
false
According to Jung, everyone has a false persona.
true
Which of the following concepts is NOT associated with Adler?
feminine protest
One difference between the neo-Freudians and Freud is that nearly all neo-Freudians
put more emphasis on interpersonal relationships.
Organ inferiority refers to a physical malady.
false
All of the following Freudian ideas were reinterpreted by David Funder in the textbook EXCEPT
the concept of defense mechanisms.
Jane feels inferior to the people around her, but she tries to act like she is powerful and in control. Adler would say that Jane is
experiencing the masculine protest.
Steven has come to terms with his mortality, accepted responsibility for his existence, and knows that he determines what happens in his life. Existentialists would say that Steven is
attaining authentic existence.
According to existentialist philosophy, the opposite of living in bad faith is
authentic existence.
According to Carl Rogers, a person can only be understood from the perspective of the entire panorama of their conscious experience or what he called their
phenomenal field.
Research has shown that some personal constructs are more readily called to mind than others. These constructs are considered
chronically accessible.
Believing that others value you based only on intelligence, success, or attractiveness can lead to
conditions of worth
The Buddhist idea of anatta refers to the impermanence of all things.
false
George Kelly believed that to understand a person, you need to understand his or her personal construct system. This idea is known as.
the sociality corollary.
To avoid developing conditions of worth, a person should experience ________ from the important people in his or her life.
unconditional positive regard
Csikszentmihalyi concluded that the best way that someone can spend her or his time is in
autotelic activities.
Which two individuals are credited with turning existentialism into a more optimistic view of life?
Rogers and Maslow
According to existentialists, authentic existence will not relieve you from loneliness and unhappiness.
true
Positive psychology seeks to study human ________ rather than ________.
strengths; faults
Jerry has been wondering what life means and whether he is living his life purposefully. If he cannot answer these questions, he will probably experience
angst
Linda thinks that her friends will like her only if she is thin, attractive, and cheerful. Rogers would say that it is unlikely that Linda will
become a fully functioning person
The biological component of experience is called Eigenwelt.
false
Which of the following philosophers was NOT mentioned in the text as an existentialist thinker?
Descartes
The theorist ________ would likely use the metaphor "humans are scientists" to describe the nature of human psychology.
George Kelly
Salvatore Maddi believed the most severe existential pathology was
vegetativeness.
Brad tends to avoid anything that could be stressful or challenging, preferring to live life with familiar activities, experiences, and people. The psychologist Salvatore Maddi would likely suggest that Brad is lacking
hardiness
Self-determination theorists believe that eudaimonia is dangerous.
false
Existentialists would say that if Donna does not worry about existential concerns but instead focuses on getting a job, obtaining material wealth, or maintaining her friendships, then she will
still not be happy
Eigenwelt includes the experience of introspection.
true
The central idea of humanistic psychology is that one's conscious experience is less psychologically important than one's actual behavior.
false
Which of the following virtues does NOT appear to be particularly important in Eastern traditions?
courage
The personality test that asks you to identify sets of three people, ideas, or objects and describe how any two of them are similar to each other and different from the third is attempting to assess your
personal constructs.
The tendency to see members of your own group as very different from one another but the members of groups to which you do not belong as very similar to each other is called the
outgroup homogeneity bias.
Residents of which region of the United States appear to have the highest levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness?
midwest
Recent research suggests which of the following about the personalities of bilingual individuals?
Bilinguals reported more conscientiousness when they completed the personality measure in English.
According to the text, what term describes cultures that have only a few proscribed goals and a few ways to achieve these goals?
tough
The ecological approach attempts to find physical reasons for cross-cultural differences.
true
Women in the United States are not more collectivist than men.
false
There are about 557 trait words in the Chinese language.
true
Shalom Schwartz and Lilach Sagiv (1995) identified two basic dimensions that they believe organize universal values. What are those two basic dimensions?
openness to change versus conservatism and self-transcendence versus self-enhancement
The idea that all cultural views are equally valid and that it is ethnocentric to think otherwise is called
cultural relativism.
Members of Asian cultures find it more acceptable to deal with controversial issues in bigger meetings than individuals from the United States.
false
If less than 2 percent of a country's population exhibits left-handedness, then cross-cultural researchers might say that the culture is likely a(n) ________ culture.
tight
Individuals from which country would be the least willing to describe themselves in contradictory terms?
United States
A culture that stresses that "Tall poppies are cut first" might be high in which cultural dimension?
collectivism
Although seven personality dimensions emerge from an analysis of the Spanish and Chinese lexicon, the seven dimensions are somewhat different.
true
Why might traits like extraversion, openness, and sociosexuality be lower in countries near the equator?
Low levels of these traits reduce interpersonal contact and disease risk.
Nima moved to the United States when she was 5 years old, and she gradually adopted the language, attitudes, and styles of American culture. The process through which Nima became Americanized is known as
acculturation.
Cultures that tolerate very little deviation from cultural norms are high in ________, according to the dimensions proposed by Triandis.
tightness
Judgments of cultural complexity as opposed to cultural tightness are fairly straightforward.
false
Psychologists who are concerned that the results of contemporary empirical research may not apply to all people everywhere are questioning the ________ of those results.
generalizability
It has been suggested that the only way that psychologists can address the generalizability issue is
to conduct research using participants from around the world.
Cross-cultural psychology has examined differences in the way that members of various cultures think. Some research suggests that people from collectivist cultures think ________ than those from individualistic cultures.
more holistically
What term associated with Japanese culture refers to indulgence and dependence that may exist between a parent and child?
amae
________ occurs when someone moves to a new place and gradually picks up the culture of the new location.
acculturation
Which of the following is NOT an important reason for identifying cross-cultural differences in experience, personality, and behavior?
The differences provide support for genetic explanations for personality.
A child learns about her or his native culture through the process of acculturation.
false
Both punishment and reinforcement can be used to get someone to stop performing a behavior.
true
If a particular song frequently precedes your being touched by your significant other, then eventually hearing the song will make you think of being touched by him or her. This is the basic idea behind
associationism
Punishment is always more effective when it immediately follows the behavior than when punishment is delayed.
true
Even amoebas and crayfish can learn habituation.
true
Opponent processes in the body can counteract some of the effects of depressants.
true
The attempt to determine how behavior is connected to the environment is called
functional analysis.
the idea that, in time, you can get used to almost anything is associated with which learning mechanism(s)?
habituation
What term refers to Bandura's idea that the self-system, environmental factors, and behavior are all dynamically interlinked?
reciprocal determinism
Based on recent research, what appears to be TRUE regarding people's ability to forecast emotional reactions to major events?
people tend to overestimate the emotional impact of both negative and positive events
Behavior that acts on the environment and changes environmental conditions to the organism's advantage is ________ behavior.
operant
Barbara thinks that Joe will go out on a date with her if she can ever get up the courage to ask him. Barbara's perception of the likelihood that Joe will accept reflects her ________, whereas her doubts about her ability to ask him out reflect her ________.
expectancy; efficacy expectation
According to Dollard and Miller's approach-avoidance conflict theory, the tendency to approach a positive goal is stronger than the tendency to avoid a negative goal.
false
What learning process may explain why some addicts are more likely to overdose in new settings as opposed to familiar settings?
Opponent processes that were classically conditioned in the familiar setting were not triggered in the new setting.
Expectancy value theory states that the individual will weigh both the size of the reward and the likelihood of obtaining the reward when faced with a decision.
true
The key target for psychotherapy, according to Bandura, is
to achieve a match between the client's efficacies and capabilities.
According to Dollard and Miller, a state of psychological tension that feels good when it is reduced is called
a drive
There is some evidence that habituation to suffering might make people less like likely to help or assist others in need.
true
Dollard and Miller view psychological conflict as the result of
approach-avoidance conflict.
Which of the following is NOT a major achievement of the learning approaches to personality?
These approaches helped further the understanding of the importance of early childhood learning.
As a child, Robin was frequently surrounded by many people and came to see herself as a very sociable person. As an adult, Robin has chosen a career that requires her to interact with other people on a daily basis. As a result, Robin is becoming even more sociable than before. This process is called
reciprocal determinism.
Which of the following psychologists was NOT considered a social learning theorist?
Thorndike
The Bobo doll studies of aggression demonstrated that
learning can occur vicariously through observation.
Skinner was among the first to insist that classical conditioning and operant conditioning
are different types of learning
According to principles of hedonism, the objective is to seek pleasure even if it involves some pain.
false
Utilitarianism, a social philosophy, claims that
the best society produces the most happiness for the largest number of people.
What term describes the term that non-psychoanalytic researchers sometimes use to refer to the unconscious?
cognitive unconscious
A person with a developmental goal will most likely respond to failure with a(n) ________ pattern of behavior.
mastery-oriented
Which of the following is NOT one of the five types of goals that emerge repeatedly in studies?
learning
All of the following traditions strongly contributed to the understanding of personality processes EXCEPT
empirically based test construction methods
Which of the following is a characteristic of the rational system?
it operates through logic
Mrs. Garcia often invites her family and friends to her house for lunches and parties. She is also involved with the people in her church group and in the Parent-Teacher Association at her child's school. According to McClelland's view of motivations, Mrs. Garcia is high in ________ motivation.
affiliation
According to the set point model of happiness, levels of happiness are genetically determined.
true
What goal-related term describes the ongoing motivation that persists in the mind until the goal is either attained or abandoned?
currant concerns
Which of the following is NOT one of the primary goals proposed by David McClelland?
need for autonomy
Sally is very concerned with abandonment and her partner's lack of commitment to their relationship. She is high on which personality dimension?
reflection sensitivity
What two types of processes are included in most dual-process models?
conscious and unconscious
Jeff has decided to go on a diet, but unfortunately Jeff's mother has made his favorite dessert, apple pie. After a big dinner, his mother brings out the pie and Jeff cannot resist having two pieces. In Epstein's terminology, Jeff's ________ won out over his ________.
experiential system; rational system
What are the two basic dimensions of the emotional circumplex model proposed by Averill?
aroused-unaroused and negative-positive
According to distinctions between types of idiographic goals, a ________ is something you think about, whereas a ________ is something you do.
current concern; personal project
A person with a judgment goal will respond to failure with a(n) ________ pattern of behavior.
helpless
Concepts that are readily available in the mind on such a frequent basis that they are become part of one's personality are said to be
chronically accessible.
Bicultural individuals often have difficulty quickly switching cultural frames of reference.
false
Sharon believes that intelligence and ability are innate and you cannot do anything to change them. Sharon has a(n) ________ theory of ability.
entity
According to research and theory about goals, it is most advantageous to have the ability to
shift between short- and long-term goals.
Goals that are unique to the individuals pursuing them are called ________ goals.
idiographic
What term refers to the idea that the concepts that have been recently activated in the mind influence one's perceptions of the world?
priming
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of idiographic goals?
They are common goals that essentially everyone pursues.
I am preparing for a test in psychology, and I tell you, "I'm sure that I'm going to fail. I'm going to study all night, and I'll just be happy with anything higher than a C." You are preparing for the same test and you say, "Oh, come on. We've been going to lecture and keeping up with the reading—we just need to review everything tonight and I'm sure we'll do well on the test." Research on pessimistic and optimistic strategies would predict that
we will get about the same grade.
It is probably easier to tutor someone with a judgment goal than it is to tutor someone with a development goal.
false
What theorist is most closely identified with cognitive-experiential self-theory?
Seymour Epstein
The overall opinion of the self is called
self-esteem
Which of the following is NOT associated with low self-esteem?
fearlessness about death
What state government set up a task force to enhance the self-esteem of its residents?
California
"The Little Engine that Could" provides an illustration of which self-related concept?
self-efficacy
Knowing how to ride a bike is an example of declarative knowledge.
False
Behavioral consistency is positively associated with ________ in American culture, whereas behavior consistency is ________ in Korean culture.
mental health; not necessarily associated with mental health
Individuals with amnesia are ________, which suggests that accurate self-knowledge ________ memories of specific life events.
are able to provide accurate self-reports of personality; exists separately from
According to previous research about cultural differences in person-based descriptions, how might someone in India describe an individual?
she does nice things for people
Members of collectivistic cultures are more consistent in their behavior than members of individualistic cultures.
false
What might happen to someone who is high in self-consciousness and primed with words related to stereotypes about senior citizens?
She might walk more slowly after the priming episode.
A person who habitually avoids social interaction but is unaware of his shyness is said to have ________ knowledge about the self.
procedural
Negative media portrayals of particular groups can be linked with less self-efficacy.
true
According to some cultural theorists, members of collectivistic cultures show a greater need for positive self-regard than members of individualistic cultures.
false
Which stage of the realistic accuracy model has the fewest limitations when it comes to making self-judgments?
availability
Which of the following statements best describes the state of the evidence regarding individualistic versus collectivistic cultures and the sense of self?
Individuals in both collectivistic and individualistic cultures have a sense of self.
What is the name of the cognitive structure that contains the declarative self?
self-schema
Individuals with amnesia are typically unable to provide valid self-reports of personality.
false
According to the text, the self-related phenomena studied by cognitively oriented personality psychologists and the phenomena studied by trait psychologists are very different.
false
On average, a Japanese person who is relatively happier than her peers in one context will also tend to be happier than her peers in another context.
true
Individuals from which of the following countries are least likely to demonstrate consistencies in self-descriptions across situations?
korea
Individuals from which of the following countries are least likely to use trait terms?
india
According to the text, one study found the ________ measures of shyness predicted spontaneous expressions of shyness better than ________ measures of shyness.
IAT, implicit
Different observers of a target individual's personality tend to agree less well in their descriptions of that person's personality in Korea than in America.
True
Which methods are appropriate for identifying self-schema?
D data and B data
Which of the following is NOT one of the self-relevant schemas that are part of self-discrepancy theory?
the feared self
An individual who consistently fears abandonment may suffer from which personality disorder?
borderline
Someone who brags about his physical health and vitality in front of a dying friend exhibits a symptom of which personality disorder?
narcissistic
What term describes the exemplar or ideal mental image associated with a particular category?
prototype
Which of the following is NOT one of the diagnostic criteria for OCPD?
lack of empathy
According to Funder's classification scheme, what three disorders are characterized by confused thinking and a lack of contact with reality?
schizotypal, schizoid, borderline
Which of the following is NOT one of the diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder?
preoccupation with fantasies of ultimate attainment
Someone who constantly monitors others for the slightest sign of betrayal may suffer from which personality disorder?
paranoid
The DSM explicitly links low economic status with antisocial personality disorder.
true
High neuroticism is NOT associated with which personality disorder?
schizoid
Dependent personality disorder is more common in men than women.
false
Severe psychopathologies such as schizophrenia appear on which axis of the DSM?
Axis I
What does it mean to say that certain personality disorders are ego-syntonic?
D) People who have them do not think anything is wrong.
Confused, delusional, and even self-destructive thinking is NOT associated with which of the following personality disorders?
anti social
Which of the following is NOT accurate regarding some of the concerns that have been raised about the DSM?
the DSM system is not widely used by the psychiatric community.
What disorder might represent an extreme or exaggerated version of traits associated with "marching to a different drummer" or acting original and somewhat idiosyncratically?
schizotypal
A description such as "emotional hemophilia" applies most accurately to which personality disorder?
borderline
Which childhood illness may have a link to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?
strep throat
Which French psychiatrist identified the problem known as madness without distortion (manie sans delire)?
Philippe Pinel
Someone who is a workaholic might just suffer from which personality disorder?
obsessive-compulsive
Individuals with ego-dystonic disorders typically want to be cured.
true
According to the DSM, which disorder is particularly difficult to assess with self-reports?
anti social
Recent theorizing suggests that narcissists
have poor impulse control and an inability to delay gratification.
Sally is very high in extraversion while she is also low in agreeableness and conscientiousness. This pattern corresponds to what personality disorder?
antisocial
Someone who consistently expects criticism, contempt, and rejection from others is likely to have which personality disorder?
avoident
Which of the following is NOT one of the diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder?
rigidity and stubbornness