Skills that involve the ability to perform tasks in a specific discipline or department.
the ability to work well with other people
skills that involve the ability to picture the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various parts
Robert L. Katz
Katz has proposed that managers must possess and use 4 critical management skills: 1) Conceptual Skills 2) Interpersonal Skills 3) Technical skills 4) Political Skills
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
taylor's scientific management principles
1. Develop a science for each element of an individual's work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method. 2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker. 3. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. 4. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers.
A sociologist who emphasized the phenomenon of bureaucracy in explaining political developments
To generalize and perceive that a persona has a whole set of characteristics when your have actually observed only one characteristic, trait or behavior
all the knowledge and values shared by a society
A process for reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing customer satisfaction
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
regional trading alliances
agreements among groups of partner countries to facilitate inter-partner trade- increase market size, reduce trade barriers (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN)
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
an association of nations dedicated to economic and political cooperation in southeastern Asia and who joined with the United States to fight against global terrorism
a cooperative agreement between business firms to use the other's already established distribution channel
locus of control
the degree to which people believe they control their own fate
a choice among two or more alternatives
an obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal or purpose
repetitive decisions that can be handled by a routine approach and are used when the problem being resolved is straightforward, familiar, and easily defined
Unique decisions that require a custom made solution and are used when the problems are new or unstructured
decision making process
•Step 1 - Identify and define the Problem •Step 2 - Generate and Evaluate alternative course of action •Step 3 - Decide on a preferred course of action •Step 4 - Implement the decision •Step 5 - Evaluate the results
a situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known
a situation in which a manager can estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes
a situation in which a manager is not certain about the outcomes
documents that outline how goals are going to be met
why do managers plan?
1. Provides direction 2. reduces uncertainty 3. minimizes waste and redundancy 4. establishes the goals or standards used in controlling
official statements of what an organization says, and wants its stakeholders to believe, its goals are
Goals that an organization actually pursues, as defined by the actions of its members.
the action steps by which an organization intends to attain strategic goals
management by objectives
A process in which objectives set by a subordinate and a supervisor must be reached within a given time period
A process that involves managers from all parts of the organization in the formulation and implementation of strategic goals and strategies.
strategic management process
- study the internal and external environments. - identify marketplace opportunities and threats. - determine how to use core competencies. - use strategic intent to leverage resources, capabilities and core competencies and win competitive battles. - integrate formulation in implementation of strategies. - seek feedback to improve strategies.
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats
a plan that indicates in which industries and national markets an organization intends to compete.
a strategy that focuses on increasing profits, revenues, market share, or the number of places in which the company does business
analyzes business opportunities according to market growth rate and market share
high market share, high growth rate
low market share, high growth rate
high market rate, low growth rate
low market share, low growth rate
an organizational strategy for how an organization will compete in its business(es)
strategic business unit
a subgroup of a single business or collection of related businesses within the larger organization
five forces model
Buyer Power, Supplier Power, Threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, rivalry among existing competitors
human resource management
the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form a qualified work force
Tracks industrial chemicals produced and imported into US
The process of deciding on the type of structure appropriate for an organization, particularly regarding its division of labor, departmentalization, span of control, delegation of authority, and coordinating mechanism
the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into individual jobs; also called division of labor
the dividing of organizational functions into separate units
types of departmentalization
functional, geographical, product, process, and customer
chain of command
the line of authority that moves from the top of a hierarchy to the lowest level
span of control
number of people supervised by one manager
Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.
Degree to which decision-making authority is restricted to higher levels of management in an organization.
the act of making formal (as by stating formal rules governing classes of expressions)
An organizational design that's rigid and tightly controlled
An organizational design that's highly adaptive and flexible
a schedule that allows workers to choose work hours that fit their particular needs