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91 terms

Management and Organizational Behavior Final Exam 2012

STUDY
PLAY
Planning
decide on organizational goals and allocate and use resources to achieve those goals
organizing
establish the rules and reporting relationships that allow people to achieve organizational goals
controlling
evaluate how well the organization is achieving goals and take action to maintain, improve, and correct performance
leading
encourage and coordinate individuals and groups so that they work toward organizational goals
manager
someone who coordinates and oversees the work of ither people so that organizational goals can be accomplished
efficiency
doing things right or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs
effectiveness
doing the right things or completing activities so that organizational goals are attained
Henry Mintzberg
"A theorist who argued that a manager in a firm needs to carry out certain roles. He identified three min roles and these are interpersonal roles, information roles and decision-making roles."
interpersonal roles
Figurehead, Leader, Liaison
informational roles
Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
decisional roles
Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, Resource allocator, Negotiator
technical skills
Skills that involve the ability to perform tasks in a specific discipline or department.
human skills
the ability to work well with other people
conceptual skills
skills that involve the ability to picture the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various parts
Robert L. Katz
Katz has proposed that managers must possess and use 4 critical management skills:
1) Conceptual Skills
2) Interpersonal Skills
3) Technical skills
4) Political Skills
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
taylor's scientific management principles
1. Develop a science for each element of an individual's work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method.
2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker.
3. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed.
4. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers.
Max Weber
A sociologist who emphasized the phenomenon of bureaucracy in explaining political developments
halo effect
To generalize and perceive that a persona has a whole set of characteristics when your have actually observed only one characteristic, trait or behavior
culture
all the knowledge and values shared by a society
six sigma
A process for reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing customer satisfaction
motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
regional trading alliances
agreements among groups of partner countries to facilitate inter-partner trade- increase market size, reduce trade barriers (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN)
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
ASEAN
an association of nations dedicated to economic and political cooperation in southeastern Asia and who joined with the United States to fight against global terrorism
strategic alliance
a cooperative agreement between business firms to use the other's already established distribution channel
locus of control
the degree to which people believe they control their own fate
decision
a choice among two or more alternatives
problem
an obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal or purpose
Programmed decision
repetitive decisions that can be handled by a routine approach and are used when the problem being resolved is straightforward, familiar, and easily defined
Nonprogrammed decision
Unique decisions that require a custom made solution and are used when the problems are new or unstructured
decision making process
•Step 1 - Identify and define the Problem
•Step 2 - Generate and Evaluate alternative course of action
•Step 3 - Decide on a preferred course of action
•Step 4 - Implement the decision
•Step 5 - Evaluate the results
certainty
a situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known
risk
a situation in which a manager can estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes
uncertainty
a situation in which a manager is not certain about the outcomes
goals
desired outcomes
plans
documents that outline how goals are going to be met
why do managers plan?
1. Provides direction 2. reduces uncertainty 3. minimizes waste and redundancy 4. establishes the goals or standards used in controlling
stated goals
official statements of what an organization says, and wants its stakeholders to believe, its goals are
real goals
Goals that an organization actually pursues, as defined by the actions of its members.
strategic plans
the action steps by which an organization intends to attain strategic goals
management by objectives
A process in which objectives set by a subordinate and a supervisor must be reached within a given time period
strategic management
A process that involves managers from all parts of the organization in the formulation and implementation of strategic goals and strategies.
strategic management process
- study the internal and external environments.
- identify marketplace opportunities and threats.
- determine how to use core competencies.
- use strategic intent to leverage resources, capabilities and core competencies and win competitive battles.
- integrate formulation in implementation of strategies.
- seek feedback to improve strategies.
swot analysis
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats
corporate strategy
a plan that indicates in which industries and national markets an organization intends to compete.
growth strategy
a strategy that focuses on increasing profits, revenues, market share, or the number of places in which the company does business
BCG matrix
analyzes business opportunities according to market growth rate and market share
stars
high market share, high growth rate
question marks
low market share, high growth rate
cash cows
high market rate, low growth rate
dogs
low market share, low growth rate
competitive strategy
an organizational strategy for how an organization will compete in its business(es)
strategic business unit
a subgroup of a single business or collection of related businesses within the larger organization
five forces model
Buyer Power, Supplier Power, Threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, rivalry among existing competitors
human resource management
the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form a qualified work force
toxic act
Tracks industrial chemicals produced and imported into US
organizational design
The process of deciding on the type of structure appropriate for an organization, particularly regarding its division of labor, departmentalization, span of control, delegation of authority, and coordinating mechanism
work specialization
the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into individual jobs; also called division of labor
departmentalization
the dividing of organizational functions into separate units
types of departmentalization
functional, geographical, product, process, and customer
chain of command
the line of authority that moves from the top of a hierarchy to the lowest level
span of control
number of people supervised by one manager
decentralization
Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.
centralization
Degree to which decision-making authority is restricted to higher levels of management in an organization.
formalization
the act of making formal (as by stating formal rules governing classes of expressions)
mechanistic organization
An organizational design that's rigid and tightly controlled
organic organization
An organizational design that's highly adaptive and flexible
flextime
a schedule that allows workers to choose work hours that fit their particular needs
stages of group development
1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing
5. Adjourning
forming
The initial stage of group development during which people come to feel valued and accepted so that they identify with the group
storming
The stage of group development characterized by conflict and power plays as members seek to have their ideas accepted and to find their place within the group's power structure.
norming
the third stage of team development, in which team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows, and positive team norms develop
performing
the fourth and final stage of team development, in which performance improves because the team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team
adjourning
The stage of group development in which members assign meaning to what they have done and determine how to end or maintain interpersonal relations they have developed
job characteristics model
an approach to job redesign that seeks to formulate jobs in ways that motivate workers and lead to positive work outcomes
hierachy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, begining at the base with physiological needs that must be satisfied before higherlevel safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
mcgregor's theory x and y
This theory states that "X" people are lazy, don't want to work, and need to be micromanaged. "Y" people are self-led, motivated, and strive to accomplish.
herzberg's two factor theory
A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory.
hygiene factors
factors that involve the presence or absence of job dissatisfiers, including working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships
motivators
in Herzberg's theory of motivating factors, job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction
three needs theory
Theory stating that people are motivated by needs for achievement, affiliation, and power
goal setting theory
A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance
reinforcement theory
theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways
feedback
response to a message
feedforward
information you provide before sending your primary message
managerial grid
A grid of two leadership behaviors - concern for people and concern for production - which resulted in five different leadership styles
supply chain management
Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
vertical integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
horizontal integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level