Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (181)
What is Little's Law?
The more items you have in a queue, the longer the wait time.
How is wait time calculated?
Queue Length / Processing Rate
_____________________ describe the higher level behaviors of a solution at the value stream level.
What are the roles in an ART?
Release Train Engineer
What is the executing ARM of a Value stream?
A _________________________ is a set of products or services that a business provides.
How long in a program increment (PI)?
10 Weeks or 5 Iterations
What is an Agile Release Train (ART)?
5 to 12 teams that plan, commit and execute together towards a common mission. They have a single program backlog and usually 50 to 125+ people.
A _________________________ is an opportunity to do work.
A _________________________ is a commitment to do work in a specific order.
Develop on ___________________________ release ___________________________.
How is value delivered at the program level?
How is value delivered at a team level?
How is value delivered at the value stream level?
What are the roles on the agile team?
What is an enabler?
Anything that creates the opportunity for business value
What is a PI Objective?
A business summary of what each team intends to deliver at the end of the upcoming PI.
Who writes the PI Objective at the team level?
Who writes PI Objectives at the program level?
Who writes the PI Objectives at the value stream level?
As a best practice, agile teams and ARTs should be formed based on ___________________________
What are the inputs into PI Planning?
Top 10 Features
What are the outputs of PI Planning?
Team and Program PI Objectives
_____________________________ is expressed on a scale of 1 to 10 to each PI objective help teams understand the importance of what is being delivered at the end of the PI.
_____________________________ runs agile team meetings and drive agile behavior
_______________________ removes impediments for the agile team.
____________________ attends the scrum of scrum meeting
__________________ defines and accepts user stories
__________________ acts as the customer for developer questions
__________________ works with product management to plan PIs
_________________ creates and refines user stories and acceptance criteria.
________________ defines, builds, tests and delivers user stories
_______________ develops and commits to team PI objectives ad iteration plans.
The ________________________ owns the program board.
Release train engineer
Who is trained first when following SAFe 123?
Lean - Agile Change Agents
Who is trained second when following SAFe 123?
Who is trained 3rd when following SAFe 124?
What is the goal or roof of the house of Lean?
Provide Value and achieve the sustainably shortest lead time.
What are the formats that the Vision can come in?
Rolling wave plans
Draft Press Release
What are the four principles of the lean Agile Mindset?
Respect for People and Culture
Key characteristics of having respect for people and culture include:
Remembering that People do all of the work.
A focus on building long term partnerships based on trust.
Do overload your customer
Do not make your customer wait
Do not force your customer to do wasteful work
Do not impose wishful thinking on your customer
Cultural changes come last - not first.
To change the culture you have to change the organization
Key characteristics of controlling flow include:
Optimizing continuous and sustainable throughput of value
Avoiding start-stop-start project delays
A focus on building in quality
An understanding of and the ability to manage variability
A cadence of frequent integrations
A focus on informed decision making via fast feedback.
Key characteristics of innovation include
Providing time and space for creativity
Remembering that producers innovate - customers validate
Applying innovation accounting
Pivoting without mercy or guilt.
Key characteristics of relentless improvement include:
Having a constant sense of danger and considering facts carefully and acting quickly.
Optimizing the whole through reflecting at key milestones and identifying shortcoming while applying lean tools to identify and address root causes
What is the role of leadership in the House of Lean?
To lead change, develop people and to inspire and align with the mission. This requires decentralized decision making which unlocks the intrinsic motivations of the knowledge worker?
What is PDCA?
Plan, Do, Check, Adjust
_________________________ accelerates knowledge and improves learning efficiency by decreasing the time between action and effect.
_______________________ reduce the cost of risk-taking by truncating unsuccessful paths quickly.
Fast Learning cycles.
______________________________ create longer cycle times, increase risk, add variability, lower quality and demotivate knowledge workers.
Long work queues.
Faster processing times ___________________ wait
How do you control wait times?
Control queue lengths
Teams should focus on reducing batch sizes because
Smaller batches lower variability and go through the system faster.
Which batch is the more important batch?
________________________ converts unpredictable events into predictable ones lowering cost.
________________________ makes waiting times for new work predictable.
___________________ supports regular planning and cross functional coordination.
________________ limits batch sizes to a single interval
______________ controls injection of new work
_______________ provides scheduled integration points
_____________causes multiple events to happen at the same time
______________ facilitates cross-functional tradeoffs
______________ provides routine dependency management
_______________ supports full system and integration assessments
_________________ provides multiple feedback perspectives
Who writes the team PI objectives?
What types of decisions should be centralized?
Infrequent, long lasting and significant economies of scale
What is the SAFe Definition of Done (DoD)
What type of decisions should be decentralized?
Frequent and common, Time critical and those that require local information.
The _________________________ acts as the chief scrum master for an ART.
Release Train Engineer
The ______________________ owns, defines and prioritizes the program backlog.
The _____________________ provides architectural guidance and technical enablement to the teams on the train.
The ____________________ provides processes and tools to integrate and evaluate assets early and often.
______________________ are key stakeholders with fiduciary, governance, efficacy and ROI responsibility for the value delivered by the ART.
______________________ are leaders who share ultimate responsibility for the value delivered by a ART. They are responsible for understanding the strategic themes and have knowledge of the current enterprise and value stream context. They are involved in driving the program vision and roadmap.
A _______________________________ provides a way for development teams to flesh out the details of the requirements and design.
A _________________________ provides the ability to lay the architectural runway which allows for faster development on appropriate technical foundations.
A __________________ often becomes non functional requirements.
Agile teams integrate their work with other teams at the ____________________________.
A train integrates their work with other trains every PI for a _____________________.
A __________________________ supports the continuous integration processes for solutions and system demos.
What are the 3 major areas that require planning for a successful PI planning event?
From an organizational perspective, the following items should be determined prior to a PI event:
1. The Scope of what needs to be planned should understood.
2. The Business Owners should have aligned on the priorities.
3. The teams needed to complete the work should be determined and staffed.
From a facilities perspective, the following items should be considered when planning a PI event:
1. The room should be large enough for all attendees with breakout rooms if necessary.
2. Facilities and Technical support people should be identified and available.
3. Communication channels for distributed meetings with primary / secondary audio / video and presentation channels must be available.
From a content perspective, the following items should be completed prior to a PI planning event.
1. An Agenda needs to be set.
2. The business context should be defined to set the direction
3. A product vision should be prepared and include the top 10 features in the program backlog.
4. The architecture vision should be defined including new enablers, features and non functional requirements.
________________________ describes the current state of the business and represents a perspective on how well the current solutions are addressing current customer needs. (This is a key component of the PI Event)
The _________________________ represents the next top 10 features and highlights changes from the previous PI planning meetings while communicating upcoming milestones.
____________________________ communicates changes to development practices and provides insight into the overall architectural runway.
Architecture Vision and Development Practices
Key outputs of the PI Planning events include
1. Program Board which shows the overall plan for each team on the release train and dependencies between features and enablers.
2. PI Program Objectives with business value assignments
3. Identified Risks
4. Vote of Confidence
Program risks are discussed and categories using
What is ROAM?
Resolved - Addressed - not a concern
Owned - Someone has taken responsibility
Accepted - Nothing more can be done, if risk occurs the release may be compromised.
Mitigated - The team has a plan to adjust as necessary.
What is the definition of capacity at the team level?
The max amount of work that can be done in an iteration.
What is the definition of capacity at the portfolio level?
The total dollars allocated to fund a value stream.
What is the definition of capacity at the value stream level?
The allocation of the type of work that will be done to support the value stream (production support, enablement, new development etc. )
Who owns Roaming risks?
Release Train Engineer
A solution vision communicates ________________________________
Solution Visions come in the what formats?
Rolling Wave Briefs
Preliminary Data Sheets
Draft Press Releases
The roadmap guides the delivery of ___________________________ over time
features and milestones
What is a feature?
Services that fulfill user needs that can be developed in a single PI.
What components should be included in a feature?
The name, business benefit and acceptance criteria.
The _______________________ develop and update the roadmap as the vision and delivery strategy evolve.
Solution and Product Managers
What should a roadmap communicate?
The teams current commitments and the plan of intent.
What is WSJF?
Weighted Shortest Job First
If you have several features that have the same cost of delay (COD) but have different durations, you should do the feature with the ___________________________________ duration first.
If you have several features that have the duration but have different cost of delay (COD), you should do the feature with the ___________________________________ value first.
How do you prioritize based on lean economics?
Cost of Delay and Cost of Delivery
If you have several features that have different calculated WSJF values, which one do you first?
The job with the highest calculated WSJF
How is WSJF Calculated?
Cost of Delay / Job Size
When does a roadmap become a queue?
When the features on the roadmap are committed.
How does the team build quality into software?
Paired Development, Test First, Continuous Integration, collective ownership, refactoring
How does the team build quality into hardware?
Set Based Design, Exploratory design verification, early iterations and MBSE (Model Based System Engineering)
What are the classes of service of Kanban?
Expedite - Represents High Priority Items
Fixed Date - Time bound constraint
What is the benefit of using Kanban?
Established WIP Limits
Visualizes the workflow
Helps control variability with buffers
Measures Flow with CFD (Cumulative Flow Diagram)
Allows continuous improvement based on empirical flow data.
What are the 3 components of inspect and adapt?
The PI System Demo
Retrospective and Problem Solving Workshop
What is the program predictability Measurement?
A measure of the actual business value achieved for each team's PI objectives in comparison to the estimated business value captured during PI planning.
What is an architectural runway?
It is existing code, hardware components that technically enable near term business features.
What are strategic themes?
Specific, itemized business objectives that connect a SAFe portfolio to the evolving enterprise business strategy.
All portfolio epics should tie to a ________________________.
The DoD for a team increment is:
Stories satisfy acceptance criteria
Acceptance tests pass
Unit and Component tests pass
Assets are under version control
Engineering standards were followed
Cumulative unit test passed and are included in the BVT
NFRs are met
No must fix defects
Stories accepted by product owner
The DoD of a System increment is:
Stories completed by all teams in the ART are integrated
Completed features meet acceptance criteria
NFRs are met
No must fix defects
Verification and validation of key scenarios
Included in build definition and deployment process
Increment demonstrated and feedback achieved
Accepted by product management
The Dod of a Solution Increment is:
Capabilities completed by all trains and meet acceptance criteria.
Deployed/installed in the staging environment
NFRs are met
System end to end integration, verification and validation done.
No Must fix defects
Included in build definition and deployment/transition process.
Solution demonstrated, feedback achieved
Accepted by Solution Management
The DoD of a release is:
All capabilities are done and meet acceptance criteria
End to end integration and solution v&V done
regression testing done
NFR's are met
No Must fix defects
Release documentation complete
Approved by solution and release management
A ____________________ is a network of interdependent components that work together to try to accomplish the aim of the system.
What do strategic themes influence?
ART and Value stream funding
Program Visions and Roadmaps
______________________ are enterprise initiatives sufficiently substantial in scope so as to warrant analysis, understanding ROI, a light weight business case and approval.
_______________ Epics cut across trains
______________ Epics can be implemented in a single train
_____________ Epics are customer facing
___________ Epics enable solutions to address business needs
How are Portfolio Epics managed?
Portfolio Kanban System
What is the role of the Program Portfolio Management team?
Establish and communicate strategic themes
Determine relevant value streams and allocate budgets
Define and prioritize Portfolio Backlog Epics
Report to the business on investment spend and progress
What is the lean agile approach to centralized control?
Decentralized Decision Making
What is the lean agile approach to project overload?
Demand Management; Continuous value flow
What is the lean agile approach to detailed project plans?
Lightweight, epic only business cases
What is the lean agile approach to centralized annual planning?
Decentralized, rolling wave planning
What is the lean agile approach to Work Breakdown structure?
Agile estimating and planning
What is the lean agile approach to project based funding and control
Lean-Agile budgeting and self managing ARTs
What is the lean agile approach to waterfall milestones?
Objective, fact based measures and milestones.
What are the benefits of funding value streams versus projects?
There is no costly and delay inducing project cost variance analysis
There are no resource assignments
There is no blame game for cost overruns.
________________________ capture strategic intent in forecasted deliverables
_____________________ define and track to the enterprise strategy
How are Portfolio Epics Estimated?
1. Epics are broken down into potential features during the portfolio Kanban Analysis stage
2. Potential Features are estimated in story points
3. Feature estimates are aggregated back into the Epic estimate and included in the business case.
The _________________________ is a servant leader that facilitates and guides the work of all the ARTs and suppliers executing on the value stream.
Value Stream Engineer
The _____________________________ is the main content authority guiding the value stream. They have primary responsibility for the value stream backlog.
The _______________________________ has the technical responsibility for the overall architecture and engineering design of the solution.
The single source of truth as to the intended and actual behavior of a solution is _________________________
________________________ records and communicates requirements, design and system architecture decisions
___________________________ facilitates further exploration and analysis activities.
________________________ Aligns the customer, the system builders and suppliers to a common purpose.
________________supports compliance and contractual obligations
The ______________________defines the environment in which a solution operates.
The ________________ is responsible for driving individual epics from identification through the analysis process of the portfolio Kanban system and onto the go/no go decision making process.
Who makes the go/no go decision on an epic?
Program Portfolio Management team
The ____________________ works with the ART development teams and Product management to initiate the development activities to realize the business benefits of the epic.
What is the life cycle of an epic?
1. The epic is defined potential benefits, cost of delay and business sponsors are identified.
2. The epic is prioritized
3. The epic success criteria is established
4. The epic is put through the portfolio Kanban board and a light weight business case is created.
5. The epic is presented for a go/no go decision to PPM.
When does real value occur?
When the end users are actually operating the solution.
What components should the deployment pipeline contain to streamline delivery?
1. The staging environment emulates production
2. Development and testing environments match production where feasible.
3. Working systems are deployed to staging every iteration.
4. Everything is under version control.
5. They should enable the ability to automatically build environments and automate the deployment process.
Who attends the Pre and Post PI Planning meetings?
VSE, customers, solutions management, solution architecture/engineer, value stream stakeholders and select representatives from the ARTs and suppliers
What are the inputs in the pre PI Planning meeting?
Results of the previous PI execution including the solution demo and a roll up of the Program Predictability Measure to the value stream.
What is the purpose of the Pre PI Planning Meeting?
To align product managers, system architects and other ART stakeholders to a common vision
To prepare content for the ART PI Planning Event
What are the outputs of the Pre PI Planning Meeting?
A set of features to be developed by the ART
Updates to the ART visions
What are the inputs into the Post PI Planning Meeting?
The Program PI Objectives for all ARTs
The value stream planning board
Unresolved program risks and the confidence vote
What are the outputs of the Post PI Planning Meeting
A consolidated value stream PI Objective
Adjust for ARTs Plans if any
Value Stream roadmap updates
What is the purpose of the value stream Post PI Planning meeting?
Understand the resultant PI for the entire value stream
Make adjustments if necessary and communicate to trains.
What is the importance of the solution demo?
It drives quality.
It allows managers and stakeholders to review progress
It allows action and investment decisions to be made based on objective evidence.
What are the 3 parts of the value stream inspect and adapt?
The solution demo
The problem solving workshop
Who attends the value stream inspect and adapt session?
VSE, customers, product and solutions management, solution architecture/engineer, value stream stakeholders and select representatives from the ARTs and suppliers
Who manages the capabilities section of Kanban?
What are the key principles to successfully leading change in the organization?
1. Establish a sense of urgency
2. Create a powerful guiding coalition
3. Develop the vision and strategy
4. Communicate the vision
5. Empower employees for broad based action
6. Generate short term wins
7. Consolidate gains and produce more wins
8. Anchor new approaches in the culture
What is a knowledge worker?
Someone who knows more about the work than the person managing the work.
What are characteristics of an expert leader?
They are technicians or master craftsman
They were promoted because the were best at their job
They are problem solvers. People go to them for answers
They understand the domain and technology
Work is when people leave them alone
What are the challenges when you have an expert leader?
The learning and growth is limited for their direct reports
Their focus is on technical problems to the detriment of human factors
What are the characteristics of a conductor leader?
They are the central decision maker, nerve center and coordinator
They orchestrate all individual parts of the organization into a harmonious whole
They use subtle and indirect manipulation to move to their solution
They manage across individuals, teams and departments
Work is coordinating other
What are the challenges of a conductor leader?
They narrow the focus of direct reports to their own areas
Conflict tends to push upward looking for the boss to fix it
Systems and procedures are used to control work
Works harder and harder without realizing full potential
What are the benefits of have an leader who is a developer of people?
there is increased direct ownership and responsibility
There is increased employee engagement and motivation
It allows leaders to spend more time managing laterally and upward
There is no limit to the power of getting things done
What are the behaviors of a leader who is a developer of people?
They create a team jointly responsible for success
They ask "How can each problem be solved in a way that further develops my people's commitment and capabilities?"
Work is developing other's abilities.
What is the role of the SPC?
Communicate the transformation need and vision
Form the transformation team
TEach leaders and other stakeholders
Train the teams and launch ARTs
Scale wins to Value streams and portfolio
Connect the dots in the enterprise
Why doe agile implementations fail?
Leaders do not know what they must do.
What are the two types of value streams?
Operational and Developmental
____________________________ are used to deliver value end customer value.
Operational Value Streams
__________________________ develop systems and capabilities that enable operational value streams
developmental value streams
What occurs during the quick start launch?
2 days of training
1 day follow up training for specialty teams and organization.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
SAfe Test - 93%
SAfe Agile Test
SAFe Agile 5.0
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
SAFe 4.5 definitions
Scaled Agile Study guide
SAFe 4 Practitioner(4.5)