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Terms in this set (507)
The Chinese massage technique used rubbing and pressing movements.
Modern Chinese massage
Modern Japanese massage. It involves the tsubo points to be pressed to increase circulation of fluid.
A book that developed in India that details massage treatments as a part of personal hygiene.
Roman physician who wrote De Medicina, detailing the use of massage, bathing, and exercise to prevent disease.
Per Henrik Ling
Swedish physiologist who developed passive and active movements to improve physical conditions known as medical gymnastics that evolved into physical and massage therapy.
Introduced medical gymnastics to the untied states and it became know as Swedish movement cure.
Established terminology for massage strokes based in French.
Developed lymphatic drainage
John Harvey Kellogg
Wrote the Art of Massage which details physiologic effects of massage
Developed Therapeutic Touch used to re-balance client's energy field.
Developed deep transverse friction used to promote healthy scar tissue formation. He's considered father of orthopedic medicine.
Gliding stroke directed to the heart. Primarily used at the beginning of the massage in archer/bow stance.
Kneading stroke used to increase circulation. loosen adhesion, and release metabolic wastes from tissues.
Strokes that move across tissue, used to increase circulation, break up scar tissue, and stretch muscle.
Percussion strokes used to increase muscle spindle acivity and phlegm in respiratory tract.
Trembling or shaking movements, fast vibration stimulates an area, slow vibration sedates an area.
Extremely light form of effleurage used at the end of the massage to separate the therapist from the client.
Client performs an action without assistance.
Client performs an action with assistance.
Massage therapist performs a joint mobilization with client completely relaxed.
The client resist a movement performed by the therapist.
Elongates a muscle.
Client stretches into resistance without help of therapist.
Client stretches into resistance with help of therapist.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilation
Assisted stretch in which the muscle stretch into resistance followed by an isometric contraction of the muscle by the client. The client then relaxes the contraction, which allows the stretch to move further.
Stoppage of range of motion in a passive joint movement.
Soft End Feel
Stoppage of range of motion due to tight soft tissue pulling the structure in the opposite way.
Hard End Feel
Stoppage of range of motion due to hard tissue preventing any further motions.
Empty End Feel
Stoppage of range of motion due to trauma to an effected muscle or joint.
Preliminary evaluation of the client before, during, and after the massage treatment.
Methods of Assessment
Intake forms, gait analysis, posture, ergonomics, contraindications, communication and palpation.
Bolsters when Side-lying
Bolsters should be place between the client's knees, arms, and under the head.
Bolsters when Semi-Reclined
Bolsters should be placed under the knees and under the head. May be used for pregnant clients to reduce pressure on the abdominal aorta which may cause dizziness.
Using essential oils for healing. Different oils have specific effect in the body ranging from physical to emotional. Aromatherapy effects the limbic system.
Developed by John Upledger, very light massage technique that releases blockage in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid from the cranium to the sacrum.
Focuses on treating deeper muscular and facial tissue.
Treatment utilizing heated stones which can be placed or rubbed on the body. Used to increase circulation and relax the muscles.
Treatment utilizing water in any form.
Contrast Bath (hydrotherapy)
Utilizes both a heated bath and a cold bath, alternately. Always ends with cold.
Turkish Bath (hydrotherapy)
Sauna inside a large stone building
Vichy Shower (hydrotherapy)
Shower utilizing seven shower heads with a client placed on a water proof table.
Hawaiian massage, using rhythmic gliding strokes on the entire body using minimal draping.
Light massage strokes moving in the direction of the heart used to increase lymph, circulation, and reduce swelling.
Massage aimed at releasing restrictions in muscles and fascia utilizing light strokes moving in the direction of the restriction.
Treating the reflex points on the hands and feet and ears which may effect corresponding organs or tissues.
Manipulation of energy into and throughout the client without touching the client.
Structure realignment technique. Helps the client regain vertical realignment. Takes place in 10 sessions with the focus on a different part of the body in each session.
Pre-event massage should be invigorating with the use of tapotement. Post- event should be rhythmic without tapotement.
Clothes massage performed on the floor utilizing stretching techniques.
Massage license in one jurisdiction being recognized as valid in another jurisdiction.
General Liability Innsurance
Protects the massage therapists in case of accidental falls by the client.
Professional liability insurance
Protects the massage therapist in lawsuits related to malpractice or negligence.
Should be retained for minimum of 6 years per IRS.
Client viewing a massage therapist similar to a person in their early life.
A massage therapist bringing up their own unresolved issues into the therapeutic relationship.
Client sharing their own thoughts and emotions during a massage session.
Massage therapist who contracts to work for a person or company and receives no benefits.
Business that only has one owner.
Business with 2 or more owners.
Corporation that passes income, taxes, etc. onto its share holders.
Filed by an independent contractor who make more that $600 in a year.
Filed by sole proprietors, details profits and loss from the previous year.
Files by partnership members. Details income and taxes for each member from previous year.
Filed by employees. Details income and taxes from previous year.
Profit and Loss Statement
Details income and expenses for business.
No more than $25 may be deducted per client per year for gifts given to the client.
Study of the structure of the human body
Study of the function of the human body
The existence and maintenance of a constant internal environment. Contributors are hormones, nerve impulses, and temperature.
Physical things that occur in the body that alter the internal environment in the response to change. Sweating reduces body temperature, and shivering increases body temperature.
Used to describe the position of structures in the body in relation to other structures.
Closer to the midline
Further away from the midline
Towards the surface
Splits the body into left and right
Splits the body into equal left and right sides, runs down the midline of the body.
Splits the body into superior and inferior
Splits the body into anterior and posterior
Central Body Region
Contains the head, neck, and trunk
Can be split into 3 separate regions: Thorax, abdomen, and pelvis
Contains most major internal organs, such as the heart and lungs
Contains the majority of the digestive organs, including the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small/large intestine, kidneys, and spleen.
Contains internal reproductive organs and the urinary bladder
Consists of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. (humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges)
Consists of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot. (Femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges)
There are 4 types of tissue in the human body: Epithelial, Nervous, Muscular, and Connective
Forms most glands, the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and epidermis. Epithelial tissue protects the body, absorbs nutrients, and secretes substances. Epithelial tissue is avascular
Forms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Allows for sensation, mental activity, and movement of skeletal muscle.
Nerve cell that receives action potentials
Branch-like projections that bring action potentials into a neuron.
Projection coming off of a neuron the carries action potentials away from the neuron.
There are 3 types of muscle: Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
Connects to the skeleton and allows voluntary movement.
Muscle of the heart, responsible for pumping blood throughout the body.
Found in the skin and digestive tract. Responsible for actions such as peristalsis and temperature regulation via arrector pili muscles.
Responsible for actions such as separating structure, connecting structures, transporting the nutrients, insulating the body, and protecting the body.
Build connective tissue
Break down connective tissue
Types of connective tissue
Bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fascia, adipose, serous membranes, and blood.
Consists of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, and plasma.
Red blood cells, responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body via hemogloblin, found in them cytoplasm of cells and made of iron.
White blood cells, phagocytes that help fight off infections agents and break down dead cells and debris inside the body.
Platelets, responsible for clotting the blood.
Liquid portion of blood, allow transportation of blood cells, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.
Surround organs inside body cavities, preventing organs from creating friction
Thorax in terms of tissue
Contains the pericardium, which surrounds the heart, and the pleura, which surrounds the lungs
Abdomen in terms of tissue
Contains the peritoneum, which also extends into the pelvis.
Visceral Serous Membrane
Parietal Serous Membrane
Transports nutrients such as oxygen and hormones to tissues and carries waste such a carbon dioxide out of the body.
Largest and most internal blood vessels, carry blood away from the heart.
Move blood towards the heart
Microscopic blood vessels that transport oxygen-rich blood into tissues.
Brings food into the body, digestion, absorbs nutrients, and eliminates waste.
Mouth, contains tongue, teeth, and salivary glands. Performs mastication and swallowing.
Throat, transports food from the oral cavity to the esophagus.
Transports food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Digests food into absorbable nutrients.
Filters harmful chemicals from the blood, produces bile.
Stores bile and empties bile into the duodenum.
Produces insulin and glucagon and secretes them into duodenum.
Absorbs nutrients. Consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Absorbs water, eliminates waste.
Ring-like bands of muscle that open to allow food to move into an organ, or close to prevent food from moving into an organ.
Located between the pharynx and esophagus.
Located between the esophagus and stomach.
Located between the stomach and small intestine.
Located between the small intestine and large intestine.
Coordinates specific activities of cells and tissues via hormone release. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream.
Secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which elevate blood pressure, heart rate, and blood sugar.
Produced by the hypothalamus, increases blood pressure and heart rate. Considered the reward center hormone.
Secrete progesterone and estrogen.
Secrete insulin and glucagon. Insulin lowers glucose concentration in the blood, while glucagon increases glucose concentration in the blood.
Secretes growth hormone, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Responsible for bone growth, milk production, and production of female egg cells and make sperm cells.
Produces calcitonin, which decreases calcium concentration in the blood.
Contains, skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands, and sensory receptors. Responsible for protection, secretion of certain substances, absorption of substances, and detection of sensations.
Protects the body, made of epithelium.
Secretes sweat, which lowers body temperature.
Detect light pressure
Detect deep pressure
Consists of lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph organs.
Made mostly of water, protein, leukocytes, urea, salts, and glucose.
Absorb foreign bodies and nutrients from tissues.
A mass of lymph tissue that filters and destroys foreign objects. Helps to produce antibodies.
Removes old red blood cells from the blood stream.
Largest lymph vessel in the body, drains into the subclavian vein.
Produces T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells.
Contains muscle, which produce movement and heat.
Contractile unit of a muscle, contains actin and myosin.
Must be present in order for a muscle to contract.
When tension in a muscle increases.
The length of a muscle stays the same, but tension increases.
The tension in a muscle stays the same, but length changes.
The tension in a muscle stays the same, and muscle length decreases.
The tension in a muscle stays the same, and muscle length increases.
The primary muscle of a synergist group responsible for movement.
A muscle that assists the prime mover in performing the action.
A muscle that oppose the prime mover, performing the opposite action.
Circular Muscle Shape
Muscle fibers are arranged in a circular manner.
Convergent Muscle Shape
Fibers converge at one end and spread out at another.
Parallel Muscle Shape
Spindle-shaped, fibers run parallel.
Pennate Muscle Shape
Muscles have a feather-like appearance. Can be unipennate, bipennate, or multipennate
Contains the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Central Nervous System
Consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem.
Largest part of the brain, split into right and left hemispheres.
Responsible for muscle tone, coordination, and balance.
Peripheral Nervous System
Consists of nerves. There are 31 pairs pf spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord, and 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from the brain.
Autonomic Nervous System
Helps to maintain homeostasis within the body.
Also know as "fight-or-flight", when activated, increases norepinephrine in the body, increasing heart rate and blood sugar. Shuts down digestive organs and pulls blood from the organs for use in muscles.
Also know as "rest-and-digest", when activated, decrease heart rate and brings blood into the digestive organs to stimulate peristalsis. Controlled by vagus nerve.
Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood, and aids in eliminating waste from the body.
Conducts and warms air coming into and exiting the body. Filters air via mucous.
Tube at front of the pharynx that allows speech.
Prevents food from entering the larynx during swallows.
Cartilage inferior to the larynx, allows air into the lungs.
Branch off the trachea, secrete mucous to trap dirt and debris. Branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles.
Air sacs at the end of bronchioles, connect to capillaries to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide to the blood.
Muscle attached to the base of the rib cage and vertebrae. Creates a vacuum to bring air into the lungs and expel air from the lungs. When the diaphragm contracts, air enters the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, air exits the lungs.
Contains bones. Responsible for protecting the body, creating blood cells, providing structure, and giving muscle a place to attach to, which permits movement.
Found on surfaces of bones where they articulate, protecting bones from friction and impact.
Connect muscles to bones.
Connects bones to bones.
Consists of the skull, vertebral column, and the thoracic cage.
Protects the brain. Contains the following bones: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, maxilla, mandible, zygomatic, and sphenoid.
Connects the two parietal bones.
Connects the frontal bone and parietal bones.
Connects the temporal bone and parietal bone.
Connects the occipital and parietal bones.
Protects the spinal cord.
Also called the rib cage, protects the organs inside the thorax. There are 12 pairs of ribs.
Superior Seven Ribs
Inferior Five Ribs
Ribs 11 and 12
Floating ribs, protect the kidneys.
Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, and pectoral and pelvic girdles.
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
Articulates with the radius
Only carpal that is a sesamoid bone.
Articulates with the metacarpal of the thumb to make the only saddle joint in the body.
Calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform 1, cuneiform 2, cuneiform 3, talus, navicular
Articulates with the tibia to create the ankle joint.
Contains the clavicles and the scapulae.
Contains the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum.
Ball on the end of one bone that fits on into the socket of another.
Allows only flexion and extension.
Allows only rotation.
Joints created by flat bone surfaces.
Created by two saddle-shaped articulating bone surfaces.
Condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another.
Cartilage in terms of joint stucture
Covers articulation sites with hyaline cartilage, the most common cartilage in the body.
Produces synovial fluid
Lubricates the joint
Dense connective tissue surrounding the joint, holding the structure together.
Fibrocartilage around the glenoid fossa and acetabulum used to deepen the joints, providing stability.
Decreases the angle of a joint
Increasing the angle of a joint
Movement toward the midline of the body
Movement away from the midline of the body
Moving a structure anteriorly.
Moving a structure posteriorly.
Turning the sole of the foot in towards the midline of the body.
Turning the sole of the foot out away from the midline of the body.
Moving a structure superiorly.
Moving a structure inferiorly.
Rotating the palm so it is facing upwards.
Rotating the palm so it is facing downwards.
Turning a structure around its long axis.
Turning a structure around the circumference of a joint.
Moving structures in opposite directions.
Moving a structure from side-to-side.
Consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Responsible for elimination of waste, re-absorption of nutrients, and pH regulation.
Filtrate and reabsorb substances back into the body. Inside each kidney, there are roughly 1.2 million nephrons, which are responsible for re-absorbing vitamins, electrolytes, and water back into the blood stream.
Transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Transports urine from the bladder out of the body.
Anemia (Cardiovascular System)
Decrease in oxygen carrying ability of the blood, most commonly due to a lack of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, or both. Results in fatigue due to hypoxia.
Aneurysm (Cardiovascular System)
Bulging of a wall of an artery outward, caused by a weakened arterial wall. Most likely caused by hypertension putting strain on the arterial wall. May break open, resulting in severe hemorrhaging internally, which may be fatal.
Heart Murmur (Cardiovascular System)
Flow of blood backwards in the heart do to malfunctioning valves, typically the bicupsid/mitral valve. Formation of blood clots may occur, along with fatigue.
Hypertension (Cardiovascular System)
High blood pressure. Results in inelasticity of the arterial walls, reducing circulation. May be treated with statins.
Migraine (Cardiovascular System)
Vascular headache. Caused by dilation of extra cranial blood vessels, which puts substantial pressure on the meninges, producing intense pain. May be caused by stress of smoke, among other things.
Myocardial Infraction (Cardiovascular System)
Death of heart tissue, usually caused by a blockage in the coronary arteries, which are responsible for supplying the myocardium with blood.
Phlebitis (Cardiovascular System)
Inflammation of a vein, caused by trauma, pregnancy, prolonged periods of sitting or standing, and may present with blood clots.
Raynaud's Syndrome (Cardiovascular System)
Constriction of blood vessels in the hands and feet, which reduces blood supply. Caused by cigarette smoking, cold exposure, or stress.
Varicose Veins (Cardiovascular System)
Swollen veins, caused by dysfunction of the valves inside the veins, resulting in blood pooling down in the legs, putting pressure of the veins, and forcing the veins towards the surface of the body.
Diverticulosis (Digestive System)
Development of pouches that protrude from the walls of the large intestine, caused by weakening of the walls due to lack of substance for the walls to press against.
Diverticulitis (Digestive System)
Inflammation of the diverticular pouches, which may become abscessed and develp ulcers. Can result in feces entering the abdominal cavity, which may lead to septicemia.
Hepatitis (Digestive System)
Inflammation of the liver, most commonly associated with a viral infection, which may be acute or chronic. Results in pain, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, and jaundice in the acute stage of infection.
Hernia (Digestive System)
Protrusion of an organ through the surrounding connective tissue membrane. May result in pain and impaired body function, depending on the location and herniated structures involved.
Addison's Disease (Endocrine System)
Autoimmune disorder which results in the degeneration of the adrenal cortex, causing a decrease in adrenal function.
Cushing's Disease (Endocrine System)
Over-production of corticosteroids, resulting in the increased weight and muscle atrophy.
Diabetes Mellitus (Endocrine System)
Increased levels of glucose in the blood stream. Diabetes Type I in caused by a decrease of insulin levels in the body, Which reduces the breakdown of glucose, while diabetes type II is caused by the body being desensitized to insulin, which is then unable to break down glucose.
Goiter (Endocrine System)
Enlargement of the thyroid gland, commonly seen with hyperthyroidism, inflammation, or lack of iodine in the diet.
Grave's Disease (Endocrine System)
Autoimmune immune disease resulting in hyperthyroidism, anxiety, trembling, and fatigue. May also result in protrusion of the the eyeballs.
Hyperthyroidism (Endocrine System)
Increased thyroid function, resulting in goiter, hyper-sensitivity to heat, increased appetite, and increased respiration.
Hypothyroidism (Endocrine System)
Lack of thyroid in the body, results in fatigue, weight gain, edema, and sensitivity to cold.
Acne (Integumentary System)
Bacterial infection of the skin, due to numerous factors, including testosterone production, stress, and hormonal imbalance.
Athlete's Foot (Integumentary System)
Also called Tinea Pedis, it is highly a highly contagious fungal infection found on the feet, which may result in breaking of the skin and lead to bacterial infection.
Basal Cell Carcinoma (Integumentary System)
Least serious, slow growing, most common form of skin cancer, usually due to over-exposure to sunlight.
Burns (Integumentary System)
First degree: Most common, least serious, only damaging the epidermis, sunburn. Second degree: Burn moves from the epidermis to the dermis, which results in blisters and swelling. Third degree: damaged subcutaneous layer. Results in necrosis and scarring of the skin.
Cellulitis (Integumentary System)
Acute infection caused by staphylococci or streptococci bacteria, which often enters the body through exposure to wounds, affecting nearby tissues. Presents with well defined borders of inflammation.
Decubitus Ulcer (Integumentary System)
Also known as a bed sore or pressure ulcer, results in ulcerations caused by prolonged pressure places on a part of the body, causing ischemia and ultimately necrosis of the affected tissue.
Herpes Simplex (Integumentary System)
Highly contagious viral infection, results in cold sores around the mouth and other mucous membranes.
Impetigo (Integumentary System)
Acute bacterial infection caused by staphylococci or streptococci, results in sores that form around the mouth, nose, and hands. Mostly seen in children, it is highly contagious.
Malignant Melanoma (Integumentary System)
Over-production of melanocytes, resulting is formation of tumors that may spread to other regions of the body.
ABCDE's Regarding skin conditions
A = Asymmetrical, B = Border, C = Color, D = Diameter, E = Evolving/Elevated
Psoriasis (Integumentary System)
Autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks epithelial tissue. Epithelial cells quickly regenerate at a rate quicker than they are destroyed, which results in thick dry and silvery patches of skin.
RIngworm (Integumentary System)
Fungal infection resulting in circular raised patches on the skin.
Sebaceous cyst (Integumentary System)
Blockage of a sebaceous gland, resulting in the body forming a thick membrane of connective tissue around the gland limiting tissue damage as a result of infection.
Wart (Integumentary System)
Epidermal protrusion resulting from infection by the human papilloma virus. Results in increased keratin production on the area of infection.
Allergies (Lymphatic System)
Hyper-sensitivity of the body to agents which are normally harmless in most people.
Lupus (Lymphatic System)
Autoimmune disorder affecting the connective tissues of the body. May result in a butter fly rash across the face, scales on the skin, fatigue, fever, photo-sensitivity and weight loss.
Lymphedema (Lymphatic System)
Increased amounts of interstitial fluid in a limb, resulting in swelling. Caused by inflammation, trauma, or blocked lymph channels.
Pitting Edema (Lymphatic System)
Swollen area that leaves pits in the skin after applying pressure. May be a sign of organ failure.
Adhesive Capsulitits (Muscular System)
Formation of adhesions that stick the joint capsule to the hand of the humerus., severely restricting range of motion at the shoulder joint. May also be caused by hyper-tonicity of the subscapularis.
Golfer's Elbow (Muscular System)
Tendonitis resulting in pain and inflammation located at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The flexors of the wrist are affected.
Strain (Muscular System)
An injury to a muscle or tendon, may be caused by over-exertion or over-stretching.
Tendonitis (Muscular System)
Inflammation of a tendon, results from injury to either the tenoperiosteal or musculotendinous junction.
Tennis Elbow (Muscular System)
Tendinitis resulting in pain and inflammation located at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The extensors of the wrist and anconeous are affected.
Tenosynovitis (Muscular System)
Inflammation of the tendon and its protective sheath De Quervain's Tenosynovitis affects the thumb side of the wrist, caused by over-use of the thumb.
Bell's Palsy (Nervous System)
Paralysis of one side of the the face as a result of inflammation or compression of the facial nerve. May be permanent or may subside.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (Nervous System)
Compression of the median nerve by the transverse carpal ligament, resulting in loss of function and sensation of the hand.
Encephalitis (Nervous System)
Inflammation of the brain, most commonly caused by a viral infection. The virus usually enters the body after contact with mosquitoes.
Multiple Sclerosis (Nervous System)
Autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the myelin sheaths surrounding axons in the central nervous system, causing the myelin to degenerate. Scarring on the axons occurs, which results in severe pain in acute stages.
Parkinson's Disease (Nervous System)
Shaking or trembling due to the reduced levels of dopamine in the body. Affects motor movements at first, then affects larger movements as the disease progresses.
Sciatica (Nervous System)
Compression of the sciatic nerve by hyper-tonic muscles, mostly commonly the piriformis. Results in pain radiating down the leg, and may even reach the bottom of the foot.
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (Nervous System)
Compression of the brachial nerve plexus, which provides stimulation to the arm, by hyper-tonic pectoralis minor and scalenes. Impairs function of the affected limb.
Trigeminal Neuralgia (Nervous System)
Compression of the trigeminal nerve. resulting in severe pain around the mouth, nose, and eyes.
Asthma (Respiratory System)
Spasm of smooth muscle in the bronchial tubes, which is a reaction to stimuli such as allergens or stress. Mucous production is also increased, further reducing air intake, creating wheezing upon inhalation.
Bronchitis (Respiratory System)
Inflammation of bronchial tubes, presents with increased mucous production. Acute bronchitis is a side effect of a primary infection of influenza, while chronic bronchitis is the result of irritants entering the lungs over a long period of time, such as cigarette smoke.
Emphysema (Respiratory System)
Destruction of the lung alveoli due to exposure of irritants such as cigarette smoke, reducing oxygen intake and carbon dioxide output.
Influenza (Respiratory System)
Acute viral infection, resulting in an inflamed pharynx and nasal cavity, increased mucous production, and fever.
Pneumonia (Respiratory System)
Streptococcal infection in the lungs, which fills the lung alveoli with fluid and waste products, reducing air intake.
Dislocation (Skeletal System)
Displacement of a bone from its normal location, damaging tissue around the area. Severely weakens the joint following dislocation, allowing for future dislocations to occur.
Fracture (Skeletal System)
A break in a bone. A simple fracture remains inside the skin, while a compound fracture breaks through the skin.
Herniated Disc (Skeletal System)
Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus, the gelatinous center of an intervertebral disc, through the annulus fibrosus, which is the tough cartilaginous portion of the disc. Results in compression of the spinal nerves, which produces pain.
Kyphosis (Skeletal System)
Hyper-curvature of the thoracic vertebrae, producing a hump-back appearance. Also know as Dowager's Hump. Can be caused by tight pectoralis minor or serratus anterior muscles, weakened back muscles, or other conditions such as osteoporosis or ankylosing spondylitis. Can result in flat back in the lumbar region.
Lordosis (Skeletal System)
Hyper-curvature of the lumbar vertebrae, forcing the vertebrae anteriorly. Also know as Swayback. Can be caused by hyper-tonicity of the iliospoas or quadratus lumborum, or a weakness in the rectus abdominis. May also result in overstretching of the hamstrings.
Osteoarthritis (Skeletal System)
Erosion of the hyaline cartilage between articulating bones. Results in increased friction between the bones, causing pain and inflammation. Also known as "wear-and-tear" arthritis.
Osteoporosis (Skeletal System)
Degeneration of bone tissue, due to a lack of calcium entering into the bones. Usually seen in post-menopausal women, due to a lack of estrogen production. Bones become thin and brittle, making them prone to injuries such as fracture.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (Skeletal System)
Autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks synovial membranes surrounding joints. Upon degeneration, the membrane is replaced by fibrous tissue, which restricts range-of-motion in the joints. Usually takes place at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the hands. The fingers are turned to a medial position, making function difficult.
Scoliosis (Skeletal System)
Lateral curvature of the vertebrae, most commonly in the thoracic vertebrae. Can be caused by severely hyper-tonic muscles such as rhomboids unilaterally, congenital deformities of the vertebral column, and poor posture.
Sprain (Skeletal System)
Injury to ligament, caused by over-stretching or tearing.
Grade 1 Sprain (Skeletal System)
Stretching of a ligament without tearing.
Grade 2 Sprain (Skeletal System)
Partial tearing of a ligament that presents with bruising and inflammation.
Grade 3 Sprain (Skeletal System)
Complete rupture of a ligament which requires surgery to repair.
Cystitis (Urinary System)
Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder, resulting in bloody urine, pain, and increased urination frequency.
Urinary Tract Infection (Urinary System)
Bacterial infection typically affecting both the urethra and urinary bladder.
Reduce activity of acids in the stomach.
Combat microorganism growth, specifically bacterium.
Reduce formation of blood clots.
Reduce effects of histamines in the body.
Anti-inflammatory Agents (Medications)
Combat virus reproduction
Dilate bronchial tubes
Reduce inflammation in the nasal cavity
Increase urine production
Lowers blood sugar levels
Local Anesthetics (Medications)
Numb an area, reducing pain. Most commonly injected via needles. Lidocaine is often used.
Relax and calm the body
Help regulate blood pressure
What does CPR Stand for?
What are the UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS in CPR and First Aid?
Treating every person and fluid as potentially contaminated or infectious. Used to properly contain blood-borne pathogens. Wear gloves and other protective equipment, avoiding contact with body fluids such a blood.
What does PRICE stand for?
Protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation. Considered the universal treatment for sprains and strains.
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