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Delores KriegerDeveloped Therapeutic Touch used to re-balance client's energy field.James CyriaxDeveloped deep transverse friction used to promote healthy scar tissue formation. He's considered father of orthopedic medicine.EffleurageGliding stroke directed to the heart. Primarily used at the beginning of the massage in archer/bow stance.PetrissageKneading stroke used to increase circulation. loosen adhesion, and release metabolic wastes from tissues.FrictionStrokes that move across tissue, used to increase circulation, break up scar tissue, and stretch muscle.TapotmentPercussion strokes used to increase muscle spindle acivity and phlegm in respiratory tract.VibrationTrembling or shaking movements, fast vibration stimulates an area, slow vibration sedates an area.Nerve StrokeExtremely light form of effleurage used at the end of the massage to separate the therapist from the client.ActiveClient performs an action without assistance.Active AssistiveClient performs an action with assistance.PassiveMassage therapist performs a joint mobilization with client completely relaxed.ResistiveThe client resist a movement performed by the therapist.StretchElongates a muscle.Unassisted stretchClient stretches into resistance without help of therapist.Assisted StrechClient stretches into resistance with help of therapist.Proprioceptive Neuromuscular FacilationAssisted stretch in which the muscle stretch into resistance followed by an isometric contraction of the muscle by the client. The client then relaxes the contraction, which allows the stretch to move further.End FeelStoppage of range of motion in a passive joint movement.Soft End FeelStoppage of range of motion due to tight soft tissue pulling the structure in the opposite way.Hard End FeelStoppage of range of motion due to hard tissue preventing any further motions.Empty End FeelStoppage of range of motion due to trauma to an effected muscle or joint.AssessmentPreliminary evaluation of the client before, during, and after the massage treatment.Methods of AssessmentIntake forms, gait analysis, posture, ergonomics, contraindications, communication and palpation.Bolsters when Side-lyingBolsters should be place between the client's knees, arms, and under the head.Bolsters when Semi-ReclinedBolsters should be placed under the knees and under the head. May be used for pregnant clients to reduce pressure on the abdominal aorta which may cause dizziness.AromatherapyUsing essential oils for healing. Different oils have specific effect in the body ranging from physical to emotional. Aromatherapy effects the limbic system.Craniosacral TherapyDeveloped by John Upledger, very light massage technique that releases blockage in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid from the cranium to the sacrum.Deep TissueFocuses on treating deeper muscular and facial tissue.Hot StoneTreatment utilizing heated stones which can be placed or rubbed on the body. Used to increase circulation and relax the muscles.HydrotherapyTreatment utilizing water in any form.Contrast Bath (hydrotherapy)Utilizes both a heated bath and a cold bath, alternately. Always ends with cold.Turkish Bath (hydrotherapy)Sauna inside a large stone buildingVichy Shower (hydrotherapy)Shower utilizing seven shower heads with a client placed on a water proof table.Lomi LomiHawaiian massage, using rhythmic gliding strokes on the entire body using minimal draping.Lymphatic DrainageLight massage strokes moving in the direction of the heart used to increase lymph, circulation, and reduce swelling.Myofascial ReleaseMassage aimed at releasing restrictions in muscles and fascia utilizing light strokes moving in the direction of the restriction.ReflexologyTreating the reflex points on the hands and feet and ears which may effect corresponding organs or tissues.ReikiManipulation of energy into and throughout the client without touching the client.RolfingStructure realignment technique. Helps the client regain vertical realignment. Takes place in 10 sessions with the focus on a different part of the body in each session.Sports MassagePre-event massage should be invigorating with the use of tapotement. Post- event should be rhythmic without tapotement.Thai MassageClothes massage performed on the floor utilizing stretching techniques.ReciprocityMassage license in one jurisdiction being recognized as valid in another jurisdiction.General Liability InnsuranceProtects the massage therapists in case of accidental falls by the client.Professional liability insuranceProtects the massage therapist in lawsuits related to malpractice or negligence.Client FilesShould be retained for minimum of 6 years per IRS.TranferanceClient viewing a massage therapist similar to a person in their early life.Counter-TranferanceA massage therapist bringing up their own unresolved issues into the therapeutic relationship.Self-DisclosureClient sharing their own thoughts and emotions during a massage session.Independent ContractorMassage therapist who contracts to work for a person or company and receives no benefits.Sole ProprietorshipBusiness that only has one owner.PartnershipBusiness with 2 or more owners.S CorporationCorporation that passes income, taxes, etc. onto its share holders.1099Filed by an independent contractor who make more that $600 in a year.Schedule CFiled by sole proprietors, details profits and loss from the previous year.Schedule K-1Files by partnership members. Details income and taxes for each member from previous year.W2Filed by employees. Details income and taxes from previous year.Profit and Loss StatementDetails income and expenses for business.Gift TaxNo more than $25 may be deducted per client per year for gifts given to the client.Aden/oglandadip/ofatangi/ovesselankyl/obentarteri/oarteryarthr/ojointather/ofatty plaqueaudi/ohearingbi/olifebrachi/oarmcarcin/ocancercardi/oheartcephal/oheadchol/ebilecholecyst/ogallbladerchondr/ocartilagecirrh/oyellowcol/olarge intestinecorp/obodycost/oribscry/ocoldcutane/oskincyan/obluecyst/obladderdent/oteethderm/oskindist/ofardors/obackemphys/oinflateencephal/obrainenter/osmall intestineerythr/oredgastr/ostomachgingiv/ogumsgloss/otonguegluc/osugarhem/obloodhepat/oliverhist/otissuehome/osamehydr/owaterhyster/outerusinguin/ogroinjaund/oyellowkinesi/omovementlact/omilklater/osideleuk/owhitelip/ofatmamm/obreastmast/otittymy/omusclenecr/odeathnephr/okidneyneur/onerveonc/otumoroophor/oovaryoste/obonepath/odiseaseped/ofootphleb/oveinpneun/olungproxim/onearpulm/olungpyr/oheatren/okidneysalping/oFallopian tubescler/ohardscoli/ocrookedsomat/obodystomat/omouththorac/ochestventr/obellya-withoutab-away fromad-towardsaf-towardsan-withoutana-againstante-beforeanti-againstauto-selfbi-twobrady-slowcircum-aroundcontra-againstdi-doubledia-throughdys-difficultef-away fromendo-withinepi-aboveexo-outsidehomeo-samehyper-exessivehypo-belowinfra-underinter-betweenintra-insideiso-samemacro-largemal-badmeta-changemicro-smallmono-onemulti-manyneo-newpan-allpara-nearperi-aroundpoly-manypost-afterpre-beforepseudo-falsequadri-fourretro-behindsupra-abovesyn-togethertachy-rapidtri-threeuni-one-acpertaining to-alpertaining to-algiapain-arpertaining to-blastgerm cell-cisioncutting-clastbreak-crinesecrete-cytecell-dermaskin-ectomyremoval-edemaswelling-emiablood-esiscondition-ferentcarry-genformation-globinprotien-icpertaining to-icianspecialist-iclesmall, tiny-istspecialist-itisinflammation-lysisdissolve-oidresembling-osiscondition-pathydiseases-phagiaeat-phasiaspeech-physisgrowth-plasiaformation-plegiaparalysis-pneabreathing-poiesisformation-rrhagebursting forth-rrheadischarge-stasisstanding still-tomyincision-trophynourishment-uriaurineAnatomyStudy of the structure of the human bodyPhysiologyStudy of the function of the human bodyHomeostasisThe existence and maintenance of a constant internal environment. Contributors are hormones, nerve impulses, and temperature.Homeostatic MechanismsPhysical things that occur in the body that alter the internal environment in the response to change. Sweating reduces body temperature, and shivering increases body temperature.Directional TermsUsed to describe the position of structures in the body in relation to other structures.SuperiorAboveInferiorBelowAnteriorFrontPosteriorBackProximalCloser to the midlineDistalFurther away from the midlineMedialMiddleLateralSideDeepMore internalSuperficialTowards the surfaceSagittalSplits the body into left and rightMidsagittalSplits the body into equal left and right sides, runs down the midline of the body.Transverse/HorizontalSplits the body into superior and inferiorFrontal/CoronalSplits the body into anterior and posteriorCentral Body RegionContains the head, neck, and trunkTrunkCan be split into 3 separate regions: Thorax, abdomen, and pelvisThoraxContains most major internal organs, such as the heart and lungsAbdomenContains the majority of the digestive organs, including the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small/large intestine, kidneys, and spleen.PelvisContains internal reproductive organs and the urinary bladderUpper LimbConsists of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. (humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges)Lower LimbConsists of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot. (Femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges)TissueThere are 4 types of tissue in the human body: Epithelial, Nervous, Muscular, and ConnectiveEpithelial TissueForms most glands, the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and epidermis. Epithelial tissue protects the body, absorbs nutrients, and secretes substances. Epithelial tissue is avascularNervous TissueForms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Allows for sensation, mental activity, and movement of skeletal muscle.NeuronNerve cell that receives action potentialsDendritesBranch-like projections that bring action potentials into a neuron.AxonProjection coming off of a neuron the carries action potentials away from the neuron.Muscular TissueThere are 3 types of muscle: Skeletal, Cardiac, and SmoothSkeletal muscleConnects to the skeleton and allows voluntary movement.Cardiac muscleMuscle of the heart, responsible for pumping blood throughout the body.Smooth muscleFound in the skin and digestive tract. Responsible for actions such as peristalsis and temperature regulation via arrector pili muscles.Connective TissueResponsible for actions such as separating structure, connecting structures, transporting the nutrients, insulating the body, and protecting the body.Blast CellsBuild connective tissueClast CellsBreak down connective tissueTypes of connective tissueBone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fascia, adipose, serous membranes, and blood.BloodConsists of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, and plasma.ErythrocytesRed blood cells, responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body via hemogloblin, found in them cytoplasm of cells and made of iron.LeukocytesWhite blood cells, phagocytes that help fight off infections agents and break down dead cells and debris inside the body.ThrombocytesPlatelets, responsible for clotting the blood.PlasmaLiquid portion of blood, allow transportation of blood cells, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.Serous MembraneSurround organs inside body cavities, preventing organs from creating frictionThorax in terms of tissueContains the pericardium, which surrounds the heart, and the pleura, which surrounds the lungsAbdomen in terms of tissueContains the peritoneum, which also extends into the pelvis.Inner wallVisceral Serous MembraneOutter wallParietal Serous MembraneCardiovascular SystemTransports nutrients such as oxygen and hormones to tissues and carries waste such a carbon dioxide out of the body.HeartPumps bloodArteriesLargest and most internal blood vessels, carry blood away from the heart.VeinsMove blood towards the heartCapillariesMicroscopic blood vessels that transport oxygen-rich blood into tissues.Digestive SystemBrings food into the body, digestion, absorbs nutrients, and eliminates waste.Oral CavityMouth, contains tongue, teeth, and salivary glands. Performs mastication and swallowing.PharynxThroat, transports food from the oral cavity to the esophagus.EsophagusTransports food from the pharynx to the stomach.StomachDigests food into absorbable nutrients.LiverFilters harmful chemicals from the blood, produces bile.GallbladderStores bile and empties bile into the duodenum.PancreasProduces insulin and glucagon and secretes them into duodenum.Small IntestineAbsorbs nutrients. Consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.Large IntestineAbsorbs water, eliminates waste.SphinctersRing-like bands of muscle that open to allow food to move into an organ, or close to prevent food from moving into an organ.Esophageal SphincterLocated between the pharynx and esophagus.Cardiac SphincterLocated between the esophagus and stomach.Pyloric SphincterLocated between the stomach and small intestine.Ileocecal SphincterLocated between the small intestine and large intestine.Endocrine SystemCoordinates specific activities of cells and tissues via hormone release. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream.Adrenal GlandsSecrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which elevate blood pressure, heart rate, and blood sugar.DopamineProduced by the hypothalamus, increases blood pressure and heart rate. Considered the reward center hormone.OvariesSecrete progesterone and estrogen.Pancreatic IsletsSecrete insulin and glucagon. Insulin lowers glucose concentration in the blood, while glucagon increases glucose concentration in the blood.Pituitary GlandSecretes growth hormone, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Responsible for bone growth, milk production, and production of female egg cells and make sperm cells.TestesSecrete testosteroneThryroidProduces calcitonin, which decreases calcium concentration in the blood.Integumentary SystemContains, skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands, and sensory receptors. Responsible for protection, secretion of certain substances, absorption of substances, and detection of sensations.SkinProtects the body, made of epithelium.Sudoriferous GlandsSecretes sweat, which lowers body temperature.Sebaceous GlandsSecrete oilSensory ReceptorsDetect sensationMeissner's CorpusciesDetect light pressureNociceptorsDetect painPacinian CorpusclesDetect deep pressureLymphatic SystemConsists of lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph organs.LymphMade mostly of water, protein, leukocytes, urea, salts, and glucose.Lymph VesselsAbsorb foreign bodies and nutrients from tissues.Lymph NodesA mass of lymph tissue that filters and destroys foreign objects. Helps to produce antibodies.SpleenRemoves old red blood cells from the blood stream.Thoracic DuctLargest lymph vessel in the body, drains into the subclavian vein.ThymusProduces T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells.Muscular SystemContains muscle, which produce movement and heat.SarcomereContractile unit of a muscle, contains actin and myosin.CalciumMust be present in order for a muscle to contract.Muscle ContractionWhen tension in a muscle increases.Isometric ContractionThe length of a muscle stays the same, but tension increases.Isotonic ContractionThe tension in a muscle stays the same, but length changes.Concentric ContractionThe tension in a muscle stays the same, and muscle length decreases.Eccentric contractionThe tension in a muscle stays the same, and muscle length increases.Prime Mover/AgonistThe primary muscle of a synergist group responsible for movement.SynergistA muscle that assists the prime mover in performing the action.AntagonistA muscle that oppose the prime mover, performing the opposite action.Circular Muscle ShapeMuscle fibers are arranged in a circular manner.Convergent Muscle ShapeFibers converge at one end and spread out at another.Parallel Muscle ShapeSpindle-shaped, fibers run parallel.Pennate Muscle ShapeMuscles have a feather-like appearance. Can be unipennate, bipennate, or multipennateNervous SystemContains the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.Central Nervous SystemConsists of the brain and spinal cord.BrainConsists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem.CerebrumLargest part of the brain, split into right and left hemispheres.CerebellumResponsible for muscle tone, coordination, and balance.Peripheral Nervous SystemConsists of nerves. There are 31 pairs pf spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord, and 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from the brain.Autonomic Nervous SystemHelps to maintain homeostasis within the body.Sympathetic ResponseAlso know as "fight-or-flight", when activated, increases norepinephrine in the body, increasing heart rate and blood sugar. Shuts down digestive organs and pulls blood from the organs for use in muscles.Parasympathetic ResponseAlso know as "rest-and-digest", when activated, decrease heart rate and brings blood into the digestive organs to stimulate peristalsis. Controlled by vagus nerve.Respiratory SystemExchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood, and aids in eliminating waste from the body.NoseConducts and warms air coming into and exiting the body. Filters air via mucous.LarynxTube at front of the pharynx that allows speech.EpiglottisPrevents food from entering the larynx during swallows.TracheaCartilage inferior to the larynx, allows air into the lungs.BronchiBranch off the trachea, secrete mucous to trap dirt and debris. Branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles.AlveoliAir sacs at the end of bronchioles, connect to capillaries to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide to the blood.DiaphragmMuscle attached to the base of the rib cage and vertebrae. Creates a vacuum to bring air into the lungs and expel air from the lungs. When the diaphragm contracts, air enters the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, air exits the lungs.Skeletal SystemContains bones. Responsible for protecting the body, creating blood cells, providing structure, and giving muscle a place to attach to, which permits movement.CartilageFound on surfaces of bones where they articulate, protecting bones from friction and impact.TendonsConnect muscles to bones.LigamentsConnects bones to bones.Axial SkeletonConsists of the skull, vertebral column, and the thoracic cage.SkullProtects the brain. Contains the following bones: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, maxilla, mandible, zygomatic, and sphenoid.Sagittal SutureConnects the two parietal bones.Coronal SutureConnects the frontal bone and parietal bones.Squamous SutureConnects the temporal bone and parietal bone.Lambdoid SutureConnects the occipital and parietal bones.Vertebral ColumnProtects the spinal cord.Cervical Vertebrae7 bonesThoracic Vertebrae12 bonesLumbar Vertebrae5 bonesSacral Vertebrae1 boneCoccygeal Vertebrae1 BoneThoracic CageAlso called the rib cage, protects the organs inside the thorax. There are 12 pairs of ribs.Superior Seven RibsTrue ribsInferior Five RibsFalse ribsRibs 11 and 12Floating ribs, protect the kidneys.Appendicular SkeletonConsists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, and pectoral and pelvic girdles.CarpalsScaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamateScaphoidArticulates with the radiusPisiformOnly carpal that is a sesamoid bone.TrapeziumArticulates with the metacarpal of the thumb to make the only saddle joint in the body.TarsalsCalcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform 1, cuneiform 2, cuneiform 3, talus, navicularTalusArticulates with the tibia to create the ankle joint.Pectoral GirdleContains the clavicles and the scapulae.Pelvic GirdleContains the ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum.Synarthrotic JointNon-movableAmphiarthrotic JointSomewhat movableDiathrotic JointFreely movableBall-and-Socket JointBall on the end of one bone that fits on into the socket of another.Hinge JointAllows only flexion and extension.Pivot JointAllows only rotation.Plane/Gliding JointJoints created by flat bone surfaces.Saddle JointCreated by two saddle-shaped articulating bone surfaces.Ellipsoid/Condyloid JointCondyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another.Cartilage in terms of joint stuctureCovers articulation sites with hyaline cartilage, the most common cartilage in the body.Synovial MembraneProduces synovial fluidSynovial FluidLubricates the jointJoint CapsuleDense connective tissue surrounding the joint, holding the structure together.LabrumFibrocartilage around the glenoid fossa and acetabulum used to deepen the joints, providing stability.FlexionDecreases the angle of a jointExtensionIncreasing the angle of a jointAdductionMovement toward the midline of the bodyAbductionMovement away from the midline of the bodyPrtractionMoving a structure anteriorly.RetractionMoving a structure posteriorly.InversionTurning the sole of the foot in towards the midline of the body.EversionTurning the sole of the foot out away from the midline of the body.ElevationMoving a structure superiorly.DepressionMoving a structure inferiorly.SupinationRotating the palm so it is facing upwards.PronationRotating the palm so it is facing downwards.RotationTurning a structure around its long axis.CircumductionTurning a structure around the circumference of a joint.OppositionMoving structures in opposite directions.Lateral DeviationMoving a structure from side-to-side.Urinary SystemConsists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Responsible for elimination of waste, re-absorption of nutrients, and pH regulation.KidneysFiltrate and reabsorb substances back into the body. Inside each kidney, there are roughly 1.2 million nephrons, which are responsible for re-absorbing vitamins, electrolytes, and water back into the blood stream.UretersTransport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.Urinary BladderStores urineUrethraTransports urine from the bladder out of the body.Anemia (Cardiovascular System)Decrease in oxygen carrying ability of the blood, most commonly due to a lack of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, or both. Results in fatigue due to hypoxia.Aneurysm (Cardiovascular System)Bulging of a wall of an artery outward, caused by a weakened arterial wall. Most likely caused by hypertension putting strain on the arterial wall. May break open, resulting in severe hemorrhaging internally, which may be fatal.Heart Murmur (Cardiovascular System)Flow of blood backwards in the heart do to malfunctioning valves, typically the bicupsid/mitral valve. Formation of blood clots may occur, along with fatigue.Hypertension (Cardiovascular System)High blood pressure. Results in inelasticity of the arterial walls, reducing circulation. May be treated with statins.Migraine (Cardiovascular System)Vascular headache. Caused by dilation of extra cranial blood vessels, which puts substantial pressure on the meninges, producing intense pain. May be caused by stress of smoke, among other things.Myocardial Infraction (Cardiovascular System)Death of heart tissue, usually caused by a blockage in the coronary arteries, which are responsible for supplying the myocardium with blood.Phlebitis (Cardiovascular System)Inflammation of a vein, caused by trauma, pregnancy, prolonged periods of sitting or standing, and may present with blood clots.Raynaud's Syndrome (Cardiovascular System)Constriction of blood vessels in the hands and feet, which reduces blood supply. Caused by cigarette smoking, cold exposure, or stress.Varicose Veins (Cardiovascular System)Swollen veins, caused by dysfunction of the valves inside the veins, resulting in blood pooling down in the legs, putting pressure of the veins, and forcing the veins towards the surface of the body.Diverticulosis (Digestive System)Development of pouches that protrude from the walls of the large intestine, caused by weakening of the walls due to lack of substance for the walls to press against.Diverticulitis (Digestive System)Inflammation of the diverticular pouches, which may become abscessed and develp ulcers. Can result in feces entering the abdominal cavity, which may lead to septicemia.Hepatitis (Digestive System)Inflammation of the liver, most commonly associated with a viral infection, which may be acute or chronic. Results in pain, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, and jaundice in the acute stage of infection.Hernia (Digestive System)Protrusion of an organ through the surrounding connective tissue membrane. May result in pain and impaired body function, depending on the location and herniated structures involved.Addison's Disease (Endocrine System)Autoimmune disorder which results in the degeneration of the adrenal cortex, causing a decrease in adrenal function.Cushing's Disease (Endocrine System)Over-production of corticosteroids, resulting in the increased weight and muscle atrophy.Diabetes Mellitus (Endocrine System)Increased levels of glucose in the blood stream. Diabetes Type I in caused by a decrease of insulin levels in the body, Which reduces the breakdown of glucose, while diabetes type II is caused by the body being desensitized to insulin, which is then unable to break down glucose.Goiter (Endocrine System)Enlargement of the thyroid gland, commonly seen with hyperthyroidism, inflammation, or lack of iodine in the diet.Grave's Disease (Endocrine System)Autoimmune immune disease resulting in hyperthyroidism, anxiety, trembling, and fatigue. May also result in protrusion of the the eyeballs.Hyperthyroidism (Endocrine System)Increased thyroid function, resulting in goiter, hyper-sensitivity to heat, increased appetite, and increased respiration.Hypothyroidism (Endocrine System)Lack of thyroid in the body, results in fatigue, weight gain, edema, and sensitivity to cold.Acne (Integumentary System)Bacterial infection of the skin, due to numerous factors, including testosterone production, stress, and hormonal imbalance.Athlete's Foot (Integumentary System)Also called Tinea Pedis, it is highly a highly contagious fungal infection found on the feet, which may result in breaking of the skin and lead to bacterial infection.Basal Cell Carcinoma (Integumentary System)Least serious, slow growing, most common form of skin cancer, usually due to over-exposure to sunlight.Burns (Integumentary System)First degree: Most common, least serious, only damaging the epidermis, sunburn. Second degree: Burn moves from the epidermis to the dermis, which results in blisters and swelling. Third degree: damaged subcutaneous layer. Results in necrosis and scarring of the skin.Cellulitis (Integumentary System)Acute infection caused by staphylococci or streptococci bacteria, which often enters the body through exposure to wounds, affecting nearby tissues. Presents with well defined borders of inflammation.Decubitus Ulcer (Integumentary System)Also known as a bed sore or pressure ulcer, results in ulcerations caused by prolonged pressure places on a part of the body, causing ischemia and ultimately necrosis of the affected tissue.Herpes Simplex (Integumentary System)Highly contagious viral infection, results in cold sores around the mouth and other mucous membranes.Impetigo (Integumentary System)Acute bacterial infection caused by staphylococci or streptococci, results in sores that form around the mouth, nose, and hands. Mostly seen in children, it is highly contagious.Malignant Melanoma (Integumentary System)Over-production of melanocytes, resulting is formation of tumors that may spread to other regions of the body.ABCDE's Regarding skin conditionsA = Asymmetrical, B = Border, C = Color, D = Diameter, E = Evolving/ElevatedPsoriasis (Integumentary System)Autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks epithelial tissue. Epithelial cells quickly regenerate at a rate quicker than they are destroyed, which results in thick dry and silvery patches of skin.RIngworm (Integumentary System)Fungal infection resulting in circular raised patches on the skin.Sebaceous cyst (Integumentary System)Blockage of a sebaceous gland, resulting in the body forming a thick membrane of connective tissue around the gland limiting tissue damage as a result of infection.Wart (Integumentary System)Epidermal protrusion resulting from infection by the human papilloma virus. Results in increased keratin production on the area of infection.Allergies (Lymphatic System)Hyper-sensitivity of the body to agents which are normally harmless in most people.Lupus (Lymphatic System)Autoimmune disorder affecting the connective tissues of the body. May result in a butter fly rash across the face, scales on the skin, fatigue, fever, photo-sensitivity and weight loss.Lymphedema (Lymphatic System)Increased amounts of interstitial fluid in a limb, resulting in swelling. Caused by inflammation, trauma, or blocked lymph channels.Pitting Edema (Lymphatic System)Swollen area that leaves pits in the skin after applying pressure. May be a sign of organ failure.Adhesive Capsulitits (Muscular System)Formation of adhesions that stick the joint capsule to the hand of the humerus., severely restricting range of motion at the shoulder joint. May also be caused by hyper-tonicity of the subscapularis.Golfer's Elbow (Muscular System)Tendonitis resulting in pain and inflammation located at the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The flexors of the wrist are affected.Strain (Muscular System)An injury to a muscle or tendon, may be caused by over-exertion or over-stretching.Tendonitis (Muscular System)Inflammation of a tendon, results from injury to either the tenoperiosteal or musculotendinous junction.Tennis Elbow (Muscular System)Tendinitis resulting in pain and inflammation located at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The extensors of the wrist and anconeous are affected.Tenosynovitis (Muscular System)Inflammation of the tendon and its protective sheath De Quervain's Tenosynovitis affects the thumb side of the wrist, caused by over-use of the thumb.Bell's Palsy (Nervous System)Paralysis of one side of the the face as a result of inflammation or compression of the facial nerve. May be permanent or may subside.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (Nervous System)Compression of the median nerve by the transverse carpal ligament, resulting in loss of function and sensation of the hand.Encephalitis (Nervous System)Inflammation of the brain, most commonly caused by a viral infection. The virus usually enters the body after contact with mosquitoes.Multiple Sclerosis (Nervous System)Autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the myelin sheaths surrounding axons in the central nervous system, causing the myelin to degenerate. Scarring on the axons occurs, which results in severe pain in acute stages.Parkinson's Disease (Nervous System)Shaking or trembling due to the reduced levels of dopamine in the body. Affects motor movements at first, then affects larger movements as the disease progresses.Sciatica (Nervous System)Compression of the sciatic nerve by hyper-tonic muscles, mostly commonly the piriformis. Results in pain radiating down the leg, and may even reach the bottom of the foot.Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (Nervous System)Compression of the brachial nerve plexus, which provides stimulation to the arm, by hyper-tonic pectoralis minor and scalenes. Impairs function of the affected limb.Trigeminal Neuralgia (Nervous System)Compression of the trigeminal nerve. resulting in severe pain around the mouth, nose, and eyes.Asthma (Respiratory System)Spasm of smooth muscle in the bronchial tubes, which is a reaction to stimuli such as allergens or stress. Mucous production is also increased, further reducing air intake, creating wheezing upon inhalation.Bronchitis (Respiratory System)Inflammation of bronchial tubes, presents with increased mucous production. Acute bronchitis is a side effect of a primary infection of influenza, while chronic bronchitis is the result of irritants entering the lungs over a long period of time, such as cigarette smoke.Emphysema (Respiratory System)Destruction of the lung alveoli due to exposure of irritants such as cigarette smoke, reducing oxygen intake and carbon dioxide output.Influenza (Respiratory System)Acute viral infection, resulting in an inflamed pharynx and nasal cavity, increased mucous production, and fever.Pneumonia (Respiratory System)Streptococcal infection in the lungs, which fills the lung alveoli with fluid and waste products, reducing air intake.Dislocation (Skeletal System)Displacement of a bone from its normal location, damaging tissue around the area. Severely weakens the joint following dislocation, allowing for future dislocations to occur.Fracture (Skeletal System)A break in a bone. A simple fracture remains inside the skin, while a compound fracture breaks through the skin.Herniated Disc (Skeletal System)Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus, the gelatinous center of an intervertebral disc, through the annulus fibrosus, which is the tough cartilaginous portion of the disc. Results in compression of the spinal nerves, which produces pain.Kyphosis (Skeletal System)Hyper-curvature of the thoracic vertebrae, producing a hump-back appearance. Also know as Dowager's Hump. Can be caused by tight pectoralis minor or serratus anterior muscles, weakened back muscles, or other conditions such as osteoporosis or ankylosing spondylitis. Can result in flat back in the lumbar region.Lordosis (Skeletal System)Hyper-curvature of the lumbar vertebrae, forcing the vertebrae anteriorly. Also know as Swayback. Can be caused by hyper-tonicity of the iliospoas or quadratus lumborum, or a weakness in the rectus abdominis. May also result in overstretching of the hamstrings.Osteoarthritis (Skeletal System)Erosion of the hyaline cartilage between articulating bones. Results in increased friction between the bones, causing pain and inflammation. Also known as "wear-and-tear" arthritis.Osteoporosis (Skeletal System)Degeneration of bone tissue, due to a lack of calcium entering into the bones. Usually seen in post-menopausal women, due to a lack of estrogen production. Bones become thin and brittle, making them prone to injuries such as fracture.Rheumatoid Arthritis (Skeletal System)Autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks synovial membranes surrounding joints. Upon degeneration, the membrane is replaced by fibrous tissue, which restricts range-of-motion in the joints. Usually takes place at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the hands. The fingers are turned to a medial position, making function difficult.Scoliosis (Skeletal System)Lateral curvature of the vertebrae, most commonly in the thoracic vertebrae. Can be caused by severely hyper-tonic muscles such as rhomboids unilaterally, congenital deformities of the vertebral column, and poor posture.Sprain (Skeletal System)Injury to ligament, caused by over-stretching or tearing.Grade 1 Sprain (Skeletal System)Stretching of a ligament without tearing.Grade 2 Sprain (Skeletal System)Partial tearing of a ligament that presents with bruising and inflammation.Grade 3 Sprain (Skeletal System)Complete rupture of a ligament which requires surgery to repair.Cystitis (Urinary System)Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder, resulting in bloody urine, pain, and increased urination frequency.Urinary Tract Infection (Urinary System)Bacterial infection typically affecting both the urethra and urinary bladder.Analgesics (Medications)Pain relieversAntacids (Medications)Reduce activity of acids in the stomach.Antibiotics (Medications)Combat microorganism growth, specifically bacterium.Anticoagulants (Medications)Reduce formation of blood clots.Antifungals (Medications)Destroy fungusAntihistamines (Medications)Reduce effects of histamines in the body.Anti-inflammatory Agents (Medications)Reduce inflammationAntipyretics (Medications)Combat feverAntivirals (Medications)Combat virus reproductionBroncho-dilators (Medications)Dilate bronchial tubesDecongestants (Medications)Reduce inflammation in the nasal cavityDiuretics (Medications)Increase urine productionInsulin (Medications)Lowers blood sugar levelsLocal Anesthetics (Medications)Numb an area, reducing pain. Most commonly injected via needles. Lidocaine is often used.Sedatives (Medications)Relax and calm the bodyStatins (Medications)Help regulate blood pressureWhat does CPR Stand for?Cardiopulmonary ResuscitationWhat are the UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS in CPR and First Aid?Treating every person and fluid as potentially contaminated or infectious. Used to properly contain blood-borne pathogens. Wear gloves and other protective equipment, avoiding contact with body fluids such a blood.What does PRICE stand for?Protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation. Considered the universal treatment for sprains and strains.