30 terms

Psychology Final Review

final this Friday scenario questions
The strongest proponents of the human unconscious mind's role in personality are?
A. Humanists
B. Psychodynamic theorists
C. Behaviorists
D. Trait theorists
Psychodynamic theorists
spoiled child within you is to the id as the referee within you is to the?
A. Pleasure principle
B. Superego
C. Libido
D. Ego
With regard to the question of whether personality is innate or learned, which of the following personality theory orientations places the most emphasis on biology?
A. Bio-constructionist
B. Humanistic
C. Psychodynamic
D. Social-cognitive
According to Rogers, a child who experiences regular punishment from parents and is only rewarded for good behavior is likely to develop knowledge of?
A. Conditions of worth
B. Positive self-regard
C. Unconditional positive regard
D. Situational worth
Conditions of worth
Bob thinks that he is a good tennis player and his results support this belief. He is better than almost all of the people in his tennis club and he wins most of his tennis matches. This agreement between Bob's beliefs and his actual experience would best be considered as an example of Carl Rogers's concept of?
A. Self-actualization
B. Congruence
C. Self-consistency
D. A condition of worth
One of the questions you often ask yourself when evaluating a potential new friend is, "How dependable is this person and can I count on him/her?" This question is most relevant to the personality trait of?
A. Neuroticism
B. Conscientiousness
C. Neuroticism.
D. Conscientiousness
Pablo enjoys work that involves finding a single "right" answer. He rarely sees any need to test an approach that works and is uncomfortable when asked to do something not already in his intellectual or emotional repertoires. He prefers simplicity in his everyday life and doesn't understand why anyone would invest large amounts of time or money into art or music. To Pablo, neither of these serves any true purpose. Based on this information and relying on the Five Factor Model, we can say that Pablo would be most likely to score LOW in?
A. Agreeableness
B. Neuroticism
C. Openness
D. Conscientiousness
. Openness
Self-report personality measures are labeled that way because they?
A. Evaluate the test-taker by the ways in which he or she classifies friends and family members
B. Ask the test-taker to predict his or her own future behavior
C. Collect opinions pertaining to a person's social roles as reflected by the subject's achievements and by others' ratings
D. Require the test-taker to respond to statements about himself or herself
Require the test-taker to respond to statements about himself or herself
Dr. Crane is looking for a test that he can use to understand more about his clients' unconscious motivations. He would be very likely to use a(n)
A. Self-report measure
B. Objective measure
C. Projective measure
D. Observational measure
Projective measure
A client is asked to look at a picture and to tell a story that describes what she thinks is happening in the picture. Her therapist will use the content of the story to make inferences about the client's personality. The client is likely taking the
A. Rorschach Test
B. Q-Sort
C. Thematic Apperception Test
Thematic Apperception Test
A study by Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968) found that children who were labeled as "late bloomers" at the start of the school year showed larger IQ gains than other, non-labeled students, even though these particular children were chosen randomly. The children's teachers were informed about these labels but the students themselves were not. The results from this study are most relevant to which of the following?
A. Dissonance theory
B. The mere exposure effect
C. The self-fulfilling prophecy
D. The self-serving bias
The self-fulfilling prophecy
The fifth-grade teacher was surprised when her Japanese-American student, Hiroko, performed poorly in math. The teacher's reaction was due to
A. Polarization
B. Stereotyping
C. Groupthink
D. Deindividuation
You believe that your roommate didn't clean up the dirty dishes in the kitchen last night because he was exhausted after an unusually busy day at work. You are making a(n) _____ attribution.
A. Internal
B. External
C. Institutional
D. Biased
Robin says, "I got a good grade on my last physics test because I got lucky; most of the questions came from the material I studied." Robin is making a(n)
A. Internal/stable/controllable attribution
B. External/unstable/uncontrollable attribution
C. Internal/unstable/controllable attribution
D. External/stable/uncontrollable attribution
External/unstable/uncontrollable attribution
You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error if you assumed that
A. He has a volatile personality
B. He just missed a putt
C. He was thrown off by the flash of a camera
D. He thought it looked like it was going to rain
He has a volatile personality
You're are African American and your son, DeShawn is in high school. DeShawn has been selected to take a national math test that could result in a college scholarship. On the basis of Claude Steele's findings with stereotype threat, you instruct DeShawn to NOT fill in any information regarding his race before he takes the exam. Why?

A. Claude Steele's research indicates that providing racial identity information on an exam could trigger stereotype threat in DeShawn
B. Claude Steele's research indicates that providing racial identity information on an exam can make it easier for the test administrators to falsify the exam scores
C. Claude Steele's research indicates that white Americans are threatened by African American males in testing situations
D. Claude Steele's research indicates that African American males are a stereotypical threat to white Americans in all situations
Claude Steele's research indicates that providing racial identity information on an exam could trigger stereotype threat in DeShawn
"Am I as popular as Cathy?" This question is an example of gaining self-knowledge through the process of
A. Peer-review
B. Peripheral attribute
C. Wishful thinking
D. Social comparison
Social comparison
"Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I'll die having a good time." This statement illustrates an attempt to reduce
A. The exposure effect
B. Cognitive dissonance
C. A classical dilemma
D. Attitude inconsistency
Cognitive dissonance
Allison is at a workshop where a presenter is attempting to persuade people to make a rather risky but potentially profitable financial investment. After carefully considering the presenter's arguments, Alison finds this person's idea sounds compelling and decides to invest. This example best demonstrates the
A. Peripheral route to persuasion
B. Norm of reciprocity
C. Central route to persuasion
D. Door-in-the-face technique
Central route to persuasion
A person on campus walks up to you and asks if you would be willing to wear a ribbon to show support for her cause. Though the ribbon is a bit unattractive, it is small so you agree to wear it. After agreeing to this request, the solicitor then asks you if you would be willing to make a donation of $15. This example best demonstrates the persuasion technique called?

A. The foot-in-the-door
B. The door-in-the-face
C. The norm of reciprocity
D. Lowballing
The foot-in-the-door
The results of the Milgram study are particularly shocking because
A. The majority of participants who went all the way to 450 volts did so quite happily
B. Milgram violated the ethical principles of his time
C. The experimenter had no real power to force the subjects to comply
D. The subjects volunteered to be the "teacher" rather than the "learner."
The experimenter had no real power to force the subjects to comply
If you have five people competing as one team in a tug-of-war contest, their combined effort level is likely to be
A. More than the sum of their individual abilities
B. Less than the sum of their individual abilities
C. The same as the sum of their individual abilities
D. The same for men, but different for women
Less than the sum of their individual abilities
Adam has the habit of giving assignments to his entire production crew, but lately he has been unhappy about their work output. Given the effect of social loafing, what might be Adam's best strategy for increasing the crew's work output?
A. Making sure there are more women in each group than men
B. Doing some of the work himself
C. Reporting the crew to the foreman
D. Docking the crew members' pay for incomplete work
Making sure there are more women in each group than men
Prejudice is most likely to occur when?
A. A student from a liberal family goes to college at a university known for its cultural diversity
B. A worker attempts to get a job during a time of economic recession
C. A company assigns individuals to work in teams composed of members who are ethnically diverse
D. A student from a conservative family goes to a college at a conservative university
A worker attempts to get a job during a time of economic recession
Diffusion of responsibility is most likely to affect
A. Group decision making
B. Aggression
C. Helping behavior
D. Prejudice
Helping behavior
Maria is a social worker in an urban community mental health center. She has just seen a crisis client who expressed suicidal ideation. After doing a thorough assessment to determine that he needed inpatient care, she sent him to the hospital and must now write her notes about the session. She codes her client's depression on?
A. Axis I
B. Axis II
C. Axis III
D. Axis IV
Axis I
Mireille began having brief episodes of overwhelming anxiety about a year ago. She doesn't know what causes them, but she has had them in the grocery store, at busy restaurants and once while driving. Her heart pounds, she has difficulty breathing and sometimes she feels like her body no longer belongs to her. She is afraid she will go crazy or have a heart attack. Based on this information, Mireille may have?
A. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
B. A somatoform disorder
C. A dissociative disorder
D. A panic disorder
A panic disorder
Brad seems to be in a continuous state of anxiety though he is unable to identify the source of his feelings. The most likely diagnosis for Brad is?
A. A generalized anxiety disorder
B. A phobia
C. A panic disorder
D. Dysthymia
A generalized anxiety disorder
Jillian can't bear to leave her home without washing all the linens and floors, vacuuming the carpets and organizing everything in her cupboards. Because she knows that her behavior is extreme, she has tried to go to work without doing all these things, but she is overcome with such overwhelming dread that she never makes it all the way to the office. Jillian probably has?
A. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
B. Generalized anxiety disorder
C. A phobia
D. Panic disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Therese is uncomfortable when she isn't the center of attention. She is unusually dramatic, extremely emotional and tends to overreact. If she has a Psychological Disorders disorder, it is MOST likely to fall into?
A. Dramatic/emotionally problematic cluster
B. Anxious/fearful cluster
C. Odd/eccentric cluster
D. Superstitious/psychotic cluster
Dramatic/emotionally problematic cluster