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Anthro 101 Chapt 9
Terms in this set (45)
Verbal and no verbal motions and sounds to represent a way to communicate
is the system of arbitrary symbols people use to encode their experience of the world and of others
the scientific study of language
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
is when one masters adult grammar
the rules for the use of language in social context and in conversation or the study of these rules
refers to the mastery of adult rules for socially and culturally appropriate speech.
Linguistic Relativity Principal
Language shapes the way we view the world
extended verbal expression in speech or writing
The study of language use that relies on ethnography to illuminate the ways in which speech is both constituted by and constitutive of social interaction.
A language with no native speakers that develops in a single generation between members of communities that possess distinct native languages (257).
A language in which the syntax and vocabulary of two other languages are simplified and combined.
s a concept used primarily within the fields of anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural studies to characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in their social worlds
is the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment
is a thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things
is an early sample or model built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from
is a group of mental processes that includes attention, memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making
The learning process by which individuals develop the skills they need to interact successfully with other members of the social groups to which they belong and come to terms with the ways of thinking and feeling that are considered appropriate in their respective cultures
Language will change our world views
Our personality and cognition
the complex of all the attributes--behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual
judgment based on individual personal impressions and feelings and opinions rather than external facts
The study of the sounds of language
In linguistics, the study of minimal units of meaning in a language(like the chart)
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
Facial expressions, bodily postures and motions that convey intended and
component consists of extralinguistic noises involving various voice qualities and vocalizations
The extra-linguistic noises that accompany language.
For example: those of crying or laughing.
A sound or gesture that has a natural or self-evident meaning.
The study of the production, transmission, and reception of speech sounds
A pidgin language that has become the mother tongue of society.
Varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible
Language form in which distinctions can only be made based on the pronunciation of the language.
The study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; the study of language within its social context.
study language in its social and cultural context.
Origin of Language
Early hominines used gestures to communicate intentions within a social setting like primates
When Homo erectus moved out of the tropics, they needed to plan and communicate to survive seasons of cold temperatures.
By the time archaic Homo sapiens appeared, finely controlled movements of the mouth and throat had given rise to spoken language.
A system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body motions that convey messages.
Non verbal communication
Any physical act used as a symbol to communicate
The development of different languages from a single ancestral language.
Levels of language
• Capacity to speak two languages
• Full capabilities in more than one language?
• Variety of language arising from local circumstances
• Speakers may be considered less intelligent
• Distinctive ways of speaking
• Code-switch and code-mixing
• Gender codes
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
A language is not simply an encoding process but is rather a shaping force. "its our language that shapes our world"
Cross Cultural Communication
is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavor to
communicate across cultures.
Languages descended from a single ancestral language
Branch of linguistics that studies the histories of and relationships between languages, living and dead. ("family tree" chart of one language leading to all other)
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