World History Final Exam Vocabulary List
Terms in this set (71)
human and human-like creatures studied by archeologists and antrhopologists
set of beliefs, knowledge, and patterns of living that a group of people develop.
objects such as tools, clothing, works of art, weapons and toys studied by archeologists
people who wander from place to place (hunters-gatherers during prehistoric times)
the taming of animals such as cattle, goats, sheep and pigs
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
Long process of switching from food gathering to food producing (agriculture)
way of life prior to permanent settlements based on agriculture
Complex culture based on food surplus, permanent settlements and some form of government.
the spread of ideas and other aspects of culture from one area to another
division of labor
people specializing in different types of work (farmers, artisans, merchants, traders)
Egyptian form of writing using more than 600 signs, pictures or symbols.
Nile river plant used for making paper and other goods
Discovery that helped scholars decode hieroglyphics
family of rulers
Egyptian ruler who was regarded as gods and held absolute (unlimited) power
process in which the body is preserved to make life after death possible.
groups of people traveling together for safety over long distances
land within a crescent-shaped area which is well-suited for farming (in area of Mesopotamia)
Sumerian pictographic writing using 600 signs (pressed marks into clay tablets using a wedge-shaped tool called a stylus)
Sumerian temples made of baked brick placed in layers like a wedding cake. Top of the temple served as a shrine to a Sumerian god.
belief in one god (Hebrew belief in Yahweh)
belief in many gods (nature gods common in early civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia)
First five books of the Old Testament
period of time before writing (written records)
town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it. The political system of the Sumerians.
form of government that unites different territories and peoples under one ruler (established by the Egyptians under the ruler known as the Pharaoh)
exchange of one good or service for another
goods that have value
The economic system based on the use of money as a measure of value and a unit of account.
winds that mark the seasons in India
special priests who knew proper forms and rules for religious worship in Indo-Aryan society.
a complex form of social organization in ancient india
rebirth of souls; the belief that the soul does not die, but is reborn in the body of another human being or animal.
perfect peace; the point at which reincarnation is complete and the individual's soul unites with the Brahman
known as the Buddha or "the Enlightened One"; founder of Buddhism
the belief that desire causes suffering. One can overcome suffering through selflessness. Salvation comes from knowing the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. Living a life of selflessness will help one reach Nirvana. (all people regardless of caste can achieve Nirvana)
Belief that one's culture is superior to all others (example- China developed a sense of ethnocentrism due to their geographical isolation)
Philosophy based on importance of family, respect for one's elders, and reverence for the past and one's ancestors. Concerning government, people will obey a rulers that promote the wellbeing of the people.
philosophy based on idea that all people were by nature selfish and untrustworthy. Peace and prosperity can only be achieved through strict laws and punishments.
doing one's moral duty (duties of their caste) in life so that the soul can advance to the next life
Mandate of Heaven
The belief that the god of heaven determined who should rule China.
good or bad force created by a person's actions (performing dharma will lead to good karma. Good karma will help one move up in reincarnation)
The religion based on the idea that he world is an illusion (Maya) and salvation can be achieved by rejecting the Maya. One pursues salvation through performing their dharma and by being a good person.
Four Noble Truths
Buddhist way to Salvation (desire causes suffering, therefore one must live a life of selflessness)
The belief that spirits inhabit everything. China combined animism with ancestor worship
The idea that everything in the world is a result of a balance between two forces (yin: female, dark and passive; Yang: male, bright and active
The belief based on the Dao, an indescribable force that governed the universe and all of nature. It taught that people should withdraw from the world and contemplate nature. This will help one achieve harmony with the Dao (balance of between the yin and the yang)
Greek word for city-state. The idea of a polis came to mean the fort, its city and the lands and small farming villages that surrounded the city and supplied its food.
First government of ancient Greece in which one ruler has absolute (unlimited) power.
A new culture that promoted a Greek-like way of life. It combined the ideas and values drawn from the Mediterranean and Asia. It will thrive from Alexander's death to the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 B.C.
Type of government in which one illegally takes power with the support of the people.
hilltop which is the original center of the city-state in ancient Greece
Government of Athens in which all citizens (not including women) participate directly in making decisions
Alliance of Greek city-states formed under the leadership of Athens after the Persian Wars. The purpose of the league was to defend against any future attacks by the Persian Empire.
Marketplace found in each city-state of ancient Greece
A form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state
Rule by the few (usually by wealthy land owners and nobles known as the aristocracy)
the study of basic questions of reality and human existence. Used by the Greeks to better understand themselves and the world around them.
checks and balances
The division of power which prevents any one part of the government from becoming too powerful. (example: the veto)
A form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state (also know as a representative government)
The Twelve Tables
Written laws of the Roman Republic- one of the demands of the Plebeians.
two individuals elected to one years terms to serve as the chief executives (first to use the concept of veto)
the commoners (farmers & workers) of early Rome who made up most of the population
Conflict of Orders
The struggle of the common peoples (Plebeians) to win more rights in Rome. Won greater participation in the Republic and the Twelve Tables
Powerful landowners of early Rome who controlled the Republic
Period of Roman peace and prosperity lasting for more than 200 years. (beginning with Octavian otherwise known Caesar Augustus)
Absolute, unlimited power through an individual ruler. Beginning with Julius Caesar, the form of government that will replace the Roman Republic.
Christians who were put to death for their beliefs.
Rise in the prices of goods that contributed to economic decline of the Roman Empire.
The name for the eastern half of the Roman Empire
Most powerful body of the Roman Republic