one-sided pain, tingling, or burning. The pain and burning may be severe and is usually present before any rash appears.
Red patches on the skin, followed by small blisters, form in most people.
The blisters break, forming small sores that begin to dry and form crusts. The crusts fall off in 2 to 3 weeks. Scarring is rare.
The rash usually involves a narrow area from the spine around to the front of the belly area or chest.
The rash may involve the face, eyes, mouth, and ears.
Other symptoms may include:
Fever and chills
General ill feeling
Swollen glands (lymph nodes)
You may also have pain, muscle weakness, and a rash involving different parts of your face if shingles affects a nerve in your face. The symptoms may include:
Difficulty moving some of the muscles in the face
Drooping eyelid (ptosis)
Loss of eye motion
Irritant contact dermatitis is the most common type. This reaction occurs when a substance damages your skin's outer protective layer. Common offenders include harsh soaps, chemical solvents, and cosmetics or skin products, including deodorant. Exposure produces red, dry, itchy patches, often on your hands, fingers or face.
The severity of irritant contact dermatitis usually depends on how long you're exposed and the strength of the irritating substance. Some strong irritants, such as bleach or certain acids, can cause a reaction after a single exposure.
Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when a substance to which you're sensitive (allergen) triggers an immune reaction in your skin. Allergic contact dermatitis produces a red rash, bumps and sometimes blisters when severe. Common allergens include natural rubber, metals such as nickel, costume jewelry, perfume, cosmetics, hair dyes and plants, including poison ivy.
Vesicular breath (normal)
sounds are heard over most of the peripheral lung fields, and are described as soft, low pitched, and with a gentle rustling quality
Also known as rales, these abnormal breath sounds are usually caused by excessive fluid within the airways. This fluid could be due to an exudate, as in pneumonia or other infections of the lung, or a transudate, as in congestive heart failure.
characteristically an expiratory sound associated with forced airflow through abnormally collapsed airways with residual trapping of air. Although commonly associated with asthma, wheezes may also be due to other causes such as airway swelling, tumor, or obstructing foreign bodies.
Diseases or conditions that influence the mechanics of breathing:
Asthma: The bronchioles constrict, reducing the size of the airways. This cuts down on the flow of air and makes the respiratory muscles work harder.
Emphysema: The lungs become stiff with fibers and become less elastic, which increases the work of the respiratory muscles.
Bronchitis: The airways become inflamed and narrower, which restricts the flow of air and increases the work of the respiratory muscles
Pneumothorax: Air in the chest cavity equalizes the pressure in the chest cavity with the outside air and causes the lungs to collapse. This is usually caused by trauma or injury.
Apnea: Breathing slows or stops under a variety of conditions. There are many types of apnea, and they are usually caused by problems in the respiratory centers of the brain.
Diseases or conditions that minimize or prevent gas exchange:
Pulmonary edema: Fluid between the alveolus and pulmonary capillary builds up, which increases the distance over which gases must exchange and slows down the exchange.
Smoke inhalation: Smoke particles coat the alveoli and prevent the exchange of gases.
Carbon monoxide poisoning: Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin more tightly than either oxygen or carbon dioxide, which minimizes the delivery of oxygen to all the tissues of the body, including the brain, the heart and muscles. Carbon monoxide is a common product of poorly vented heaters (space heaters, furnaces, water heaters) and of automobile exhausts. This condition can be fatal if not caught soon after exposure.
shortness of breath due to difficulty exhaling all the air from the lungs. Because of damage to the lungs or narrowing of the airways inside the lungs, exhaled air comes out more slowly than normal. At the end of a full exhalation, an abnormally high amount of air may still linger in the lungs.Obstructive lung disease makes it harder to breathe, especially during increased activity or exertion. As the rate of breathing increases, there is less time to breathe all the air out before the next inhalation.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis
Medicines that relax smooth muscles and improve airflow are called bronchodilators, and are inhaled.
cannot fully fill their lungs with air.
most often results from a condition causing stiffness in the lungs themselves.
Interstitial lung disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Sarcoidosis, an autoimmune disease
Obesity, including obesity hypoventilation syndrome
Neuromuscular disease, such as muscular dystrophy or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Few medicines (control inflammation)
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) uses a tight-fitting mask and a pressure generator to assist breathing. BiPAP is helpful for people with obesity hypoventilation syndrome and some nerve or muscle conditions causing restrictive lung disease.
Chronic Bronchitis (blue bloaters)
Productive cough, with progression over time to intermittent dyspnea
Frequent and recurrent pulmonary infections
Progressive cardiac/respiratory failure over time, with edema and weight gain
Patients may be obese.
Frequent cough and expectoration are typical.
Use of accessory muscles of respiration is common.
Coarse rhonchi and wheezing may be heard on auscultation.
Patients may have signs of right heart failure (ie, cor pulmonale), such as edema and cyanosis.
Because they share many of the same physical signs, COPD may be difficult to distinguish from CHF. One crude bedside test for distinguishing COPD from CHF is peak expiratory flow. If patients blow 150-200 mL or less, they are probably having a COPD exacerbation; higher flows indicate a probable CHF exacerbation.
Emphysema (pink puffers)
A long history of progressive dyspnea with late onset of nonproductive cough
Occasional mucopurulent relapses
Eventual cachexia and respiratory failure
Patients may be very thin with a barrel chest.
They typically have little or no cough or expectoration.
Breathing may be assisted by pursed lips and use of accessory respiratory muscles; they may adopt the tripod sitting position.
The chest may be hyperresonant, and wheezing may be heard; heart sounds are very distant.
Overall appearance is more like classic COPD exacerbation.
In general, the vast majority of COPD cases are the direct result of tobacco abuse. While other causes are known, such as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, cystic fibrosis, air pollution, occupational exposure (eg, firefighters), and bronchiectasis, this is a disease process that is somewhat unique in its direct correlation to a human activity.
relieve the pressure on your lung, allowing it to re-expand, and to prevent recurrences.
Needle or chest tube insertion
If a larger area of your lung has collapsed, it's likely that a needle or chest tube will be used to remove the air. The hollow needle or tube is inserted between the ribs into the air-filled space that is pressing on the collapsed lung. With the needle, a syringe is attached so the doctor can pull out the excess air — just like a syringe is used to pull blood from a vein. Chest tubes are often attached to a suction device that continuously removes air from the chest cavity and may be left in place for several hours to several days.
If a chest tube doesn't resolve your problem, surgery may be necessary to close the air leak. In most cases, the surgery can be performed through small incisions, using a tiny fiberoptic camera and narrow, long-handled surgical tools. The surgeon will look for the leaking bleb and sew it closed. If no leaking bleb is visible, a substance like talc is blown in through the tube to irritate the tissues around the lung so that they'll stick together and seal any leaks. Rarely, the surgeon will have to make a larger incision between the ribs to get better access to multiple or larger air leaks.
Antibiotics to treat and prevent lung infections
Mucus-thinning drugs to help you cough up the mucus, which improves lung function
Bronchodilators to help keep your airways open by relaxing the muscles around your bronchial tubes
Oral pancreatic enzymes to help your digestive tract absorb nutrients
Chest physical therapy-loosen thick mucus in lungs
Chest clapper, a hand-held device that mimics the effect of cupped hands clapping over the ribs
Inflatable vest, a device worn around the chest that vibrates at high frequency
Breathing devices, usually a tube or mask through which you exhale while performing breathing exercises
Your doctor may recommend a long-term program to improve your lung function and overall well-being. Pulmonary rehabilitation is usually done on an outpatient basis and may include:
Psychological counseling or group support or both
Surgical and other procedures
Nasal polyp removal. Your doctor may recommend surgery to remove nasal polyps that obstruct breathing.
Oxygen therapy. If your blood-oxygen level declines, your doctor may recommend you sometimes breathe pure oxygen to prevent high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension).
Endoscopy and lavage. Mucus may be suctioned from obstructed airways through an endoscope.
Lung transplant. If you have severe breathing problems, life-threatening lung complications or increasing resistance to antibiotics used to treat lung infections, lung transplantation may be an option. Because both lungs are affected by cystic fibrosis, both need to be replaced. Lung transplants for people with cystic fibrosis are controversial because studies indicate the procedure is associated with many complications, and may not prolong life or enhance quality of life.
Feeding tube. Cystic fibrosis interferes with digestion, so you can't absorb nutrients from food very well. Your doctor may suggest using a feeding tube to deliver extra nutrition while you sleep. This tube may be threaded through your nose to your stomach or surgically implanted into the abdomen.
Bowel surgery. If a blockage develops in your bowel, you may need surgery to remove it. Intussusception, where a section of bowel has folded in on itself, also may require surgical repair.
It isn't clear why some people get asthma and others don't, but it's probably due to a combination of environmental and genetic (inherited) factors.
Airborne allergens, such as pollen, animal dander, mold, cockroaches and dust mites
Allergic reactions to some foods, such as peanuts or shellfish
Respiratory infections, such as the common cold
Physical activity (exercise-induced asthma)
Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoke
Certain medications, including beta blockers, aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve)
Strong emotions and stress
Sulfites and preservatives added to some types of foods and beverages
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which stomach acids back up into your throat
Menstrual cycle in some women
Lung function tests, also called pulmonary function tests, measure how well your lungs work. These tests are used to look for the cause of breathing problems, such as shortness of breath.
Lung function tests measure:
How much air you can take into your lungs. This amount is compared with that of other people your age, height, and sex. This allows your doctor to see whether you're in the normal range.
How much air you can blow out of your lungs and how fast you can do it.
How well your lungs deliver oxygen to your blood.
The strength of your breathing muscles.
Doctors use lung function tests to help diagnose conditions such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of the lung tissue), and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).
Lung function tests also are used to check the extent of damage caused by conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DOE-sis). Also, these tests might be used to check how well treatments, such as asthma medicines, are working.
Lung function tests include breathing tests and tests that measure the oxygen level in your blood. The breathing tests most often used are:
Spirometry- This test measures how much air you can breathe in and out. It also measures how fast you can blow air out.
Body plethysmography-This test measures how much air is present in your lungs when you take a deep breath. It also measures how much air remains in your lungs after you breathe out fully.
Lung diffusion capacity-This test measures how well oxygen passes from your lungs to your bloodstream.
These tests may not show what's causing breathing problems. So, you may have other tests as well, such as an exercise stress test. This test measures how well your lungs and heart work while you exercise on a treadmill or bicycle.
Two tests that measure the oxygen level in your blood are pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas tests. These tests also are called blood oxygen tests.
Pulse oximetry measures your blood oxygen level using a special light. For an arterial blood gas test, your doctor takes a sample of your blood, usually from an artery in your wrist. The sample is sent to a laboratory, where its oxygen level is measured.
Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen, a gas that your body needs to work well. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air. However, some diseases and conditions can prevent you from getting enough oxygen.
Oxygen therapy may help you function better and be more active. Oxygen is supplied in a metal cylinder or other container. It flows through a tube and is delivered to your lungs in one of the following ways:
Through a nasal cannula, which consists of two small plastic tubes, or prongs, that are placed in both nostrils.
Through a face mask, which fits over your nose and mouth.
Through a small tube inserted into your windpipe through the front of your neck. Your doctor will use a needle or small incision (cut) to place the tube. Oxygen delivered this way is called transtracheal oxygen therapy.
Oxygen therapy can be done in a hospital, another medical setting, or at home. If you need oxygen therapy for a chronic (ongoing) disease or condition, you might receive home oxygen therapy.
Primary (essential) hypertension
For most adults, there's no identifiable cause of high blood pressure. This type of high blood pressure, called essential hypertension or primary hypertension, tends to develop gradually over many years.
Some people have high blood pressure caused by an underlying condition. This type of high blood pressure, called secondary hypertension, tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than does primary hypertension. Various conditions and medications can lead to secondary hypertension, including:
Adrenal gland tumors
Certain defects in blood vessels you're born with (congenital)
Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs
Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines
pacemaker pathways become fibrous
heart wall thickening
deposits of the "aging pigment," lipofuscin. The heart muscle cells degenerate slightly. The valves inside the heart, which control the direction of blood flow, thicken and become stiffer. A heart murmur caused by valve stiffness is fairly common in the elderly
baroreceptors monitor the blood pressure . The baroreceptors become less sensitive with aging
The capillary walls thicken slightly. This may cause a slightly slower rate of exchange of nutrients and wastes.
The main artery from the heart (aorta) becomes thicker, stiffer, and less flexible. This is probably related to changes in the connective tissue of the blood vessel wall. This makes the blood pressure higher and makes the heart work harder, which may lead to thickening of the heart muscle (hypertrophy). The other arteries also thicken and stiffen. In general, most elderly people experience a moderate increase in blood pressure.
The blood itself changes slightly with age. Normal aging causes a reduction in total body water. As part of this, there is less fluid in the bloodstream, so blood volume decreases.
The number of red blood cells are reduced. This contributes to fatigue. Most of the white blood cells stay at the same levels, although certain white blood cells important to immunity (lymphocytes) decrease in their number and ability to fight off bacteria. This reduces the ability to resist infection.
Hematuria is blood in the urine.
Most people with microscopic hematuria do not have symptoms. People with gross hematuria have urine that is pink, red, or cola-colored due to the presence of red blood cells (RBCs).
Hematuria can be caused by menstruation, vigorous exercise, sexual activity, viral illness, trauma, or infection, such as a urinary tract infection (UTI). More serious causes of hematuria include
cancer of the kidney or bladder
inflammation of the kidney, urethra, bladder, or prostate
polycystic kidney disease
blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia
sickle cell disease
When blood is visible in the urine or a dipstick test of the urine indicates the presence of RBCs, the urine is examined with a microscope to make an initial diagnosis of hematuria. The next step is to diagnose the cause of the hematuria.
If a thorough medical history suggests a cause that does not require treatment, the urine should be tested again after 48 hours for the presence of RBCs. If two of three urine samples show too many RBCs when viewed with a microscope, more serious causes should be explored.
One or more of the following tests may be ordered: urinalysis, blood test, biopsy, cytoscopy, and kidney imaging tests.
Hematuria is treated by treating its underlying cause.
The maximum volume of urine that the bladder can hold decreases. Thus, older people may need to urinate more often.
The bladder muscles may become overactive, regardless of whether people need to urinate.
The bladder muscles weaken. As a result, they cannot empty the bladder as well, and more urine is left in the bladder after urination.
The muscle that controls the passage of urine out of the body (urinary sphincter) is less able to close tightly and prevent leakage. Thus, older people have more difficulty postponing urination.
In women, the urethra (the tube through which urine leaves the body) shortens, and its lining becomes thinner. The decrease in the estrogen level that occurs with menopause may contribute to this and other changes in the urinary tract.
In men, the prostate gland tends to enlarge. interfere with the passage of urine and to prevent the bladder from emptying completely. As a result, older men tend to urinate with less force, to take longer to start the stream of urine, to dribble urine at the end of the stream, and to urinate more often. Older men are also more likely to be unable to urinate despite having a full bladder (called urinary retention).
For general pain prevention:
F: Fluids and Fever - Drink plenty of water and fever management. If you get a fever, see
your health care provider right away.
A: Air - Make sure you do not get into problems with not enough oxygen like an unpressurized airplane.
R: Rest - Get plenty of sleep. Do not over do it and take plenty of breaks when your body
M: Medications - Preventative medications like daily penicillin to fight infections or
hydroxyurea for pain prevention. The vitamin folic acid helps make new red blood cells.
S: Situations - Avoid situations where it is too hot or too cold, avoid smoking, alcohol or illegal
Recording in Diary:
L: Location of the pain (joints, back, abdomen, etc)
O: Other Symptoms with the pain (fever, nausea, cough, etc)
C: Character and description of the pain (burning, deep, throbbing)
A: Aggravating and Alleviating things; what makes the pain better or worse
T: Timing - when did it start and does it come and go?
E: Environment and Effect - where were you and what were you doing when the pain
started? How does the pain affect your daily routine?
S: Severity - rate how much pain you are having on a pain scale from 0-10
A single drop of blood contains millions of red blood cells which are constantly traveling through your body delivering oxygen and removing waste. If they weren't, your body would slowly die.
Red blood cells are red only because they contain a protein chemical called hemoglobin which is bright red in color. Hemoglobin contains the element Iron, making it an excellent vehicle for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide. As blood passes through the lungs, oxygen molecules attach to the hemoglobin. As the blood passes through the body's tissue, the hemoglobin releases the oxygen to the cells. The empty hemoglobin molecules then bond with the tissue's carbon dioxide or other waste gases, transporting it away.
Over time, the red blood cells get worn out and eventually die. The average life cycle of a red blood cell is 120 days. Your bones are continually producing new blood cells, replenishing your supply. The blood itself, however, is re-circulated throughout your body, not being remade all of the time.
Since the human body is continually making more blood, it is safe for healthy adults to donate blood. The blood is then stored for use in emergency situations. Initially after giving blood, the donor may feel some momentary lightheadedness due to the loss of oxygen-rich red blood cells and blood sugar. The body quickly stabilizes itself.
The human body does not handle excessive blood loss well. Therefore, the body has ways of protecting itself. When, for some unexpected reason, sudden blood loss occurs, the blood platelets kick into action.
Platelets are irregularly-shaped, colorless bodies that are present in blood. Their sticky surface lets them, along with other substances, form clots to stop bleeding.
When bleeding from a wound suddenly occurs, the platelets gather at the wound and attempt to block the blood flow. The mineral calcium, vitamin K, and a protein called fibrinogen help the platelets form a clot.
A clot begins to form when the blood is exposed to air. The platelets sense the presence of air and begin to break apart. They react with the fibrinogen to begin forming fibrin, which resembles tiny threads. The fibrin threads then begin to form a web-like mesh that traps the blood cells within it. This mesh of blood cells hardens as it dries, forming a clot, or "scab."
Calcium and vitamin K must be present in blood to support the formation of clots. If your blood is lacking these nutrients, it will take longer than normal for your blood to clot. If these nutrients are missing, you could bleed to death. A healthy diet provides most people with enough vitamins and minerals, but vitamin supplements are sometimes needed.
A scab is an external blood clot that we can easily see, but there are also internal blood clots. A bruise, or black-and-blue mark, is the result of a blood clot. Both scabs and bruises are clots that lead to healing. Some clots can be extremely dangerous. A blood clot that forms inside of a blood vessel can be deadly because it blocks the flow of blood, cutting off the supply of oxygen. A stroke is the result of a clot in an artery of the brain. Without a steady supply of oxygen, the brain cannot function normally. If the oxygen flow is broken, paralysis, brain damage, loss of sensory perceptions, or even death may occur.
Why Get Tested?
To determine if red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets are normal in appearance and number, to distinguish between the different types of white blood cells and determine their relative percentages in the blood; a blood smear helps diagnose a range of deficiencies, diseases, and disorders involving blood cell production, function, and destruction; it may also be used to monitor cell production and cell maturity in diseases such as leukemia, during chemo/radiation therapy, and in the evaluation of different types of hemoglobins (hemoglobinopathies).
When to Get Tested?
When complete blood count (CBC) and/or automated WBC differential results are abnormal, a blood smear with a manual WBC differential is performed to determine the presence of and identification of abnormal or immature cells; a doctor may order a peripheral smear differential to evaluate many conditions that affect a patient's red and white blood cells.
A-caused by eating food and drinking water infected with a virus called HAV. It can also be caused by anal-oral contact during sex. While it can cause swelling and inflammation in the liver, it doesn't lead to chronic, or life long, disease. Almost everyone who gets hepatitis A has a full recovery.
B-caused by the virus HBV. It is spread by contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or other body fluid. And, it is a sexually transmitted disease (STD)
C-caused by the virus HCV. It is spread the same way as hepatitis B, through contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or body fluid (see above). Like hepatitis B, hepatitis C causes swelling of the liver and can cause liver damage that can lead to cancer. Most people who have hepatitis C develop a chronic infection. This may lead to a scarring of the liver, called cirrhosis. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, greatly reducing the risk for getting the virus from blood transfusions or blood products.
cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown. Previously, diet and stress were suspected, but now doctors know that although these factors may aggravate existing Crohn's disease, they don't cause it. Now, researchers believe that a number of factors, such as heredity and a malfunctioning immune system, play a role in the development of Crohn's disease.
Immune system- It's possible that a virus or bacterium may trigger Crohn's disease. When your immune system tries to fight off the invading microorganism, an abnormal immune response causes the immune system to attack the cells in the digestive tract, too.
Heredity-Crohn's is more common in people who have family members with the disease, leading experts to suspect that one or more genes may make people more susceptible to Crohn's disease. However, most people with Crohn's disease don't have a family history of the disease.
using standard growth charts to plot weight, length, and head circumference, which are measured at each well-baby exam. Children who fall below a certain weight range for their age or who are failing to gain weight at the expected rate will be evaluated further to determine if there's a problem.
Along with obtaining a thorough medical and feeding history and performing a detailed physical exam, the doctor may order a complete blood count, urine test, and various blood chemical and electrolyte tests to search for underlying medical problems. If a particular disease or disorder is suspected, the doctor might perform additional tests specific to that condition.
To determine whether a child is receiving enough food, the doctor (sometimes with the help of a dietitian) will do a calorie count after asking the parents what the child eats every day. And talking to the parents can help a doctor identify any problems at home, such as neglect, poverty, household stress, or feeding difficulties.
Peptic ulcers. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, are common causes of peptic ulcers.
Esophageal varices. Varices, or enlarged veins, located at the lower end of the esophagus may rupture and bleed massively. Cirrhosis is the most common cause of esophageal varices.
Mallory-Weiss tears. These tears in the lining of the esophagus usually result from vomiting. Increased pressure in the abdomen from coughing, hiatal hernia, or childbirth can also cause tears.
Gastritis. NSAIDs and other drugs, infections, Crohn's disease, illnesses, and injuries can cause gastritis—inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the stomach.
Esophagitis. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common cause of esophagitis—inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the esophagus. In GERD, the muscle between the esophagus and stomach fails to close properly, allowing food and stomach juices to flow back into the esophagus.
Benign tumors and cancer. A benign tumor is an abnormal tissue growth that is not cancerous. Benign tumors and cancer in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum may cause bleeding.
Causes of bleeding in the lower digestive tract include the following:
Diverticular disease. This disease is caused by diverticula—pouches in the colon wall.
Colitis. Infections, diseases such as Crohn's disease, lack of blood flow to the colon, and radiation can cause colitis—inflammation of the colon.
Hemorrhoids or fissures. Hemorrhoids are enlarged veins in the anus or rectum that can rupture and bleed. Fissures, or ulcers, are cuts or tears in the anal area.
Angiodysplasia. Aging causes angiodysplasia—abnormalities in the blood vessels of the intestine.
Polyps or cancer. Benign growths or polyps in the colon are common and may lead to cancer. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States and often causes occult bleeding.
components of the GI system
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
function of GI system
in charge of absorbing and transporting all the nutrients your body needs in order to thrive -- and it gets rid of all the waste the body doesn't need
Overall, the digestive system is less affected by aging than most parts of the body. The muscles of the esophagus contract less forcefully, but movement of food through the esophagus is not affected. Food is emptied from the stomach slightly more slowly, and the stomach cannot hold as much food because it is less elastic. But in most people, these changes are too slight to be noticed.
Certain changes cause problems in some people. The digestive tract may produce less lactase, an enzyme the body needs to digest milk. As a result, older people are more likely to develop intolerance of dairy products (lactose intolerance). People with lactose intolerance may feel bloated or have gas or diarrhea after they consume milk products.
In the large intestine, materials move through a little more slowly. In some people, this slowing contributes to constipation.
The liver tends to become smaller because the number of cells decreases. Less blood flows through it, and liver enzymes that help the body process drugs and other substances work less efficiently. As a result, the liver may be slightly less able to help remove drugs and other substances from the body. And the effects of drugs—intended and unintended—last longer.
The digestive organs may be incompletely developed or abnormally positioned, causing blockages, or the muscles or nerves of the digestive tract may be defective.
Symptoms include crampy abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, and vomiting.
The diagnosis usually is based on x-rays.
Surgery usually is required.
A birth defect can occur anywhere along the length of the digestive tract—in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, or anus. In many cases, an organ is not fully developed or is abnormally positioned, which often causes narrowing or blockage (obstruction). The internal or external muscles surrounding the abdominal cavity may weaken or develop holes. The nerves to the intestines may also fail to develop (Hirschsprung's disease, or congenital megacolon).
Blockages (obstructions) that develop in the intestines, rectum, or anus can cause rhythmic, crampy abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, and vomiting.
Most digestive tract defects require surgery. Generally, obstructions are surgically opened. Weakenings or holes in the muscles surrounding the abdominal cavity are sewn shut.
Aging Cells-function less well this includes all organs and systems
The levels and activity of some hormones, produced by endocrine glands, decrease.
Growth hormone levels decrease, leading to decreased muscle mass.
Aldosterone levels decrease, making dehydration more likely. This hormone signals the body to retain salt and therefore water.
Insulin, which helps control the sugar level in blood, is less effective, and less insulin may be produced causing sugar level increases more after a large meal and takes longer to return to normal.
For most people, the changes in the endocrine system have no noticeable effect on overall health. But in some, the changes may increase the risk of health problems. For example, the changes in insulin increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.
swelling of lymph nodes occurs during clinical latent stage.
Majority develop a flu-like illness within a month or two after the virus enters the body.
This illness, known as primary or acute HIV infection, may last for a few weeks. Possible symptoms include:
Fever,Muscle soreness, Rash, Headache, Sore throat, Mouth or genital ulcers, Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck, Joint pain, Night sweats, Diarrhea
Chronic symptoms-Fever, Fatigue, Swollen lymph nodes — often one of the first signs of HIV infection, Diarrhea, Weight loss, Cough and shortness of breath
typically progresses to AIDS in about 10 years. By the time AIDS develops, your immune system has been severely damaged, making you susceptible to opportunistic infections — diseases that wouldn't trouble a person with a healthy immune system
Soaking night sweats, Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F (38 C) for several weeks, Cough and shortness of breath, Chronic diarrhea, Persistent white spots or unusual lesions on your tongue or in your mouth, Headaches, Persistent, unexplained fatigue, Blurred and distorted vision, Weight loss, Skin rashes or bumps
when the immune system mistakes a normally harmless substance for a dangerous invader. The immune system then produces antibodies that are always on the alert for your particular allergen. When you're exposed to the allergen again in the future, these antibodies release a number of immune system chemicals, such as histamine, that cause allergy symptoms.
Common allergy triggers include:
Airborne allergens, such as pollen, animal dander, dust mites and mold
Certain foods, particularly peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, eggs and milk
Insect stings, such as bee stings or wasp stings
Medications, particularly penicillin or penicillin-based antibiotics
Latex or other substances you touch, which can cause allergic skin reactions
Hay fever-Congestion, Itchy, runny nose, Itchy, watery or swollen eyes (conjunctivitis)
Atopic dermatitis-itchy, red, flaking, or peeling skin
food allergy-Tingling mouth, Swelling of the lips, tongue, face or throat, Hives, Anaphylaxis
insect sting allergy-A large area of swelling (edema) at the sting site, Itching or hives all over your body, Cough, chest tightness, wheezing or shortness of breath, Anaphylaxis
drug allergy-Hives, Itchy skin, Rash, Facial, swelling, Wheezing, Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis-Loss of consciousness, Lightheadedness, Severe shortness of breath, A rapid, weak pulse, Skin rash, Nausea and vomiting, Swelling airways which can block breathing
Wrapping your arm or leg,
Pneumatic compression-sleeve is connected to a pump that intermittently inflates the sleeve, putting pressure on your limb. The inflated sleeve gently moves lymph fluid away from your fingers or toes, reducing the swelling in your arm or leg.,
When several of these treatments are combined, this therapy may be referred to as complete decongestive therapy (CDT). Generally, CDT isn't recommended for people who have high blood pressure, diabetes, paralysis, heart failure, blood clots or acute infections
In cases of severe lymphedema, your doctor may consider surgery to remove excess tissue in your arm or leg. While this reduces severe swelling, surgery can't cure lymphedema.
There are two types of GVHD: acute and chronic. Symptoms in both acute and chronic GVHD range from mild to severe.
Acute GVHD usually happens within the first 3 months after a transplant. Common acute symptoms include:
Abdominal pain or cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
Dry or irritated eyes
Jaundice (yellow coloring of the skin or eyes)
Skin rash, itching, redness on areas of the skin
Chronic GVHD usually starts more than 3 months after a transplant, and can last a lifetime:
Dry eyes or vision changes
Dry mouth, white patches inside the mouth, and sensitivity to spicy foods
Fatigue, muscle weakness, and chronic pain
Skin rash with raised, discolored areas, as well as skin tightening or thickening
Shortness of breath
Pathogens-microorganisms that cause disease (bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa)
Bacteria-common pathogens include cholera bacteria, Salmonella and E.coli (food poisoning), dysentery bacteria, and MRSA
Fungi-Pathogenic fungi tend to be ones that cause infections to the surface of the body. Their fibres grow in the upper layer of the skin which causes inflammation and damage. This can also provide a route into the body for other opportunistic infections. Diseases such as athlete's foot, ringworm, oral and vaginal thrush are examples of fungal infections. Fungi can cause infections inside the body such as in the lungs, brain and heart which can be very serious and even fatal.
Virus-All natural viruses cause disease including the common cold, influenza (flu), measles, mumps and rubella. They are not living cells themselves, and they can only reproduce inside other living cells.
Protozoa- Infection is usually spread by structures called cysts which are cells that have secreted a protective layer around them so that they can survive the journey from one host to the next. Once inside the new host, these cysts develop into the active protozoa which grow, reproduce and cause symptoms of disease in the new host. Malaria, dysentery, and sleep sickness
Parasites-organism that lives in or on another organism (the host). The parasite gets some or all of its food from the host organism. This can cause anything from mild disease to death to the host. Parasites can also spread diseases from one organism to another.
General Information - age, race, gender
Patient's chief complaint - signs and symptoms
History of present illness - onset, acute or chronic, duration of symptoms
Family history - any significant medical history, even if it is seemingly unrelated to current signs and symptoms. Includes, diseases, surgeries, hospitalizations, etc.
Social history- lifestyle: smoking, alcohol, exercise, stress, etc.
Verbal review of body systems - discussion about any irregularities or concerns related to other body systems
Typically occur only when the disease is advanced.
A new cough that doesn't go away, Changes in a chronic cough or "smoker's cough", Coughing up blood, even a small amount, Shortness of breath, Chest pain, Wheezing, Hoarseness, Losing weight without trying, Bone pain, Headache
Hyperventilation, Sense of impending doom or danger, Fear of loss of control or death, Rapid heart rate, Sweating, Trembling, Shortness of breath, Nausea, Abdominal cramping, Chest pain, Headache, Dizziness, Faintness, Tightness in your throat, Trouble swallowing