Western Civ Notes

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2700-1400BC
Minoan civilization
Mycenean ________govt
monarchy
1600-1000BC
Mycenean civiliz.
When did food and popl. decrease?
Dark Age
Greeks sailed on____
Aegen sea
Greeks settled on _______
Asia Minor
What did they make their tools out of?
iron
Greeks language based on______
phoenician alphabet
taught the value of courage and honor
epic poems
excellence
arete
750BC
polis center of Greek life
What led to spread of greek culture?
trade and search for new farmland
Who resented the power of aristocrats?
wealthy indv. and peasants
Who seized power from aristocrats?
tyrants
What did some city-states become?
oligarchies
What were the foundations of Athenian democracy?
land reforms and an assembly
leadership shifted between
aristocrats and tyrants
What kept city-states divided?
citizens loyalty and strong identity
what did citizens have?
defined rights and responsiblities
How did the Greeks run into problems with the Persians?
spread of greek civiliz.
What period was the Persian War?
Classical
center of Greek empire
Athens
dominant figure of Athens, rebuilt city
Pericles
What period did democracy flourish?
Classical: under Age of Pericles
Who could vote in Greece?
adult male citiz.
What led to the Pelopens. War?
distrust btwn Athens and Sparta
What period was the Pelopens. War?
Classical
What happened after Pelopens. War
Sparta, Athens, and Thebes struggled to dominate Greek affairs
what was central to Greek daily life?
religion
What did Greek religion focus on?
performing rituals to
What did Greeks use to learn the will of God?
oracles
classical Greek philosopohers
SPA
Greek philos. devoted themselves to _________as a means of understanding the ___
rational thought, nature of the universe
_____created the foundations of Western science
Aristotle
What was the purpose Classical Greek art?
to express eternal ideas
what were examples of Greek art
temples and sculptures
What happened in 359BC?
Philip II came to throne in Macedonia
who longed to unite Greece and Macedonia?
Philip II
Who was the son of Philip II?
Alex. the Great
Who did Alex the Great defeat?
Persian Empire
Alex spread his empire as far as ___.
Pakistan
what empire was successful at spreading Greek culture
Alex the Great
During what time period was Greek ciliz. thriving in SE Asia?
Hellenistic Era
Rome's ruling class
patricians
In Rome, ____ were responsible for for electing chief officials and passing laws
centuriate assembly
___a group of patricians who served for life
the Senate
form of govt where citiz. vote and leader is not a monarch
republic
Rome's 1st code of laws
12 Tables
___body of law Romans came to identify with natural law
law of nations
_____were herders and farmers who inhabited land before Rome became a Republic
latins
led Roman armies into battle and ran the govt
consuls
What did Roman control by the end of the century?
the Mediterranean
What could plebians Not do?
be elected or marry a patrician
In 200BC who dominated Roman State?
aristocrats in Senate
Carthage's greatest general
Hannibal
What battle was Hannibal defeated at?
Zama
Who pushed for land reform as a remedy for Rome's economic and social crises.
Gracchus brothers
first Roman emperor
Octavian
What did Caesar do to the Roman Empire?
restored stability
The Romans displayed their engineering skills by
using concrete in architecture, aqueducts, network of roads
led the most famous slave revolt in Italy
Spartacus
Who founded Christian communities in Asia Minor and along the Aegean Sea
Simon Peter
What threatened the Roman Empire in 300BC?
economic and military problems
Who divided the empire into 4 units?
Diocletian
Who was the emporer when Roman Empire fell?
Romulus Augustulus
The _____ were the last to sack Rome before Romulus Augustulus was deposed and the Western Roman Empire fell.
Vandals
body of law that applied stnadards of justice to all people
Law of Nations
Rome developed a system of ___and ____ that is stil used today
law and justice
What transformed Republic into Empire?
increasing internal instability
What year did Roman collapse?
476 AD
Where was Rome situated?
inland on hills along the Tiber River
What year was the Republic established?
509BC
Who dominated the early republic?
wealthy patrician landowners
In 287 BC____were proclamied = under law
Roman male citiz.
What did Romans create which has influenced many legal systems
code of laws and standards of justice
What country did Rome bring under its control?
Italy
Why did leaders call for land reforms?
When Senate came to power, small farmers could no longer compete and became landless poor
_____was a general who marched on Rome with his troops, and eventually he was declared dictator
Julius Caesar
How did Caesar's rule end?
he was assassinated
What did the Senate resist and what did it lead to?
land reforms, civil war
What placed power in the hands of three wealthy generals
The 1st Triumvirate
What is a Roman Emperor?
Augustus
Following a ,______ Octavian became Augustus, and the civil wars came to an end.
Second Triumvirate
the Romans devoloped a _______ style of sculpture
realistic
What time period was the high point of Latin Literature
The Age of Augustus
In early Rome, ____had absolute authority over the family
male head of household
By the third century B.C.,_____ enjoyed increasing independence and a more visible social role
women
The small town of Rome grew into a_______
thriving, overcrowded city.
What provided Rome with a sense of grandeur and magnificence?
public buildings, works, and entertainment
Roman religion worshipped________
many gods and goddesses
When did Christianity emerge?
Around 6 AD
A widespread unrest in Judaea lead to _____
the spread of Christianity
By 100 A.D. Christian churches were established in many____
major cities of the empire
What was considered a threat to the state?
Christianity
Who proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity?
Constantine
What emperor adopted Christinaity as the official religion of Rome?
Theodosius the Great
Conflict and confusion followed the death of _____
Marcus Aurelius
What brought the Roman empire to the brink of economic collapse?
Invasions, civil wars, and plague
What 2 emperors restored at least temporary stability to the empire ?
Diocletian and Constantine
How did Constantine bring about stability?
political and economic reforms, coercion, and stringent economic and social policies
Who the empire too large for one emperor ?
Diocletian
The Greek city of ____ became the capital of the eastern part of the empire
Byzantium
______put increasing pressure on the western part of the empire
Germanic tribes
What 2 tribes sacked the Romans?
Visigoths and Vandals
___, ____, and _____ contribute to an increase in food production and population growth during the Middle Ages?
a climate change, a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare, three-field system of crop rotation
What played a dominant role in people's lives during the High Middle Ages?
the Church
barred some people from receiving the sacraments.
interdict
What prompted monks to form the Cistercians?
a desire for greater discipline
What time period did many monks emerged
midevil Middle Ages
heretics were executed during the _______.
inquisition
What harmonized Christian teachings with Greek philosophy?
scholasticism
14th Century
100 Yrs. War
14th Century
Black Death
14th Century
severe economic problems
made the use of stained glass windows possible.
flying buttresses
A dispute over _____ led to the Great Schism of the Church.
taxation of the clergy
___, ______, and _____ lead the revival of trade in Europe
the emergence of a money economy, a regular exchange of goods between Flanders and Italy, and the establishment of banking firms
What time period did Europe have an explosive urban growth and revival of trade?
High Middle Ages
What weakened the Church?
centuries of confrontation with the monarchies
Under the ______ lords owned agricultural estates worked by free peasants and by serfs
manorial system,
Trade led to what development in the economic system?
use of money rather than barter
the cities of the High Middle Ages were___and ____
diry and crowded
In High Middle ages_____regulated employment in many crafts and professions
guilds
Who sought to remove secular influence from the Catholic Church and improve the Church's ability to provide spiritual guidance?
Pope Gregory VII
What barred monarchs from investing bishops?
Concordat of Worms
The importance of the sacraments for ordinary Christians gave the Church______.
a central role in people's lives
Christians believed __ could intercede in heaven on their behalf.
saints
What prompted new monastic orders for men and women?
religious fervor
How did the Inquisition give the Church a "tool" for discouraging heresy?
Those who failed to do proper penance for heresy could face execution.
In what centuries did building boom produced many new churches?
11th and 12th
one of the artistic triumphs of the High Middle Ages
Gothic cathedrals
when were the 1st universities established?
12th century: High Middle Ages
______was the most prestigious subject and was heavily influenced by scholasticism
theology
Who The best-known practitioner of scholasticism?
St. Thomas Aquinas
What was the universal language of midevil times?
Latin
New literature was written in what language?
vernacular
When did the black death occur?
Late Middle Ages: mid 1300s
What led to anti-Semitism and accelerated end of serfdom?
Black Death
What power declined as European kings rejected supremacy?
Church power
Popular respect for the papacy was undermined by the_____
Great Schism
___introduced new methods of warfare and devastated England and France.
100 yrs war
The "new monarchies" of the fifteenth century reestablished the centralized power of the monarchies in what 3 countries?
England, France, and Spain
During the Italian Renaissance, people believed _____.
they were witnessing a rebirth of ancient Greece and Rome,they had entered a new age of human achievement, well-rounded people could achieve in many areas of life
Which city-states play a central role in the politics of Renaissance Italy?
Florence, Milan, and Venice
described how a prince should acquire and keep political power
Machiavelli's The Prince
What was the basis of humanism
study of the classics
a key intellectual movement of the Renaissance
humanism
Dante and Chaucer were two authors who wrote their works in _____.
the vernacular
French Revolution are best illustrated by the conditions of the _____, who made up 75 to 80 percent of the population
peasants
executed thousands over a 12-month period.
Committee of Public Safety
leaders of Comm. of Public Safety
Georges Danton and Max. Robespierre
An informal coalition of several European states took up arms against France after _____.
the execution of Louis XVI
Paris Commune pressured the _________ to adopt price controls on food?
National Convention
a group of five men chosen by the electors to govern the country
The Directory