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nuclear division mechanism that occurs in somatic cells of multi-celled eukaryotes


nuclear division mechanism that forms gametes or spores; basis of sexual reproduction; divides parental chromosome number in half

sister chromatid

one of two attached members of a duplicated chromosome


in chromosome the constricted region where microtubules of spindle bind

bipolar spindle

dynamic network of microtubules that grow from opposite poles of the cell


having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species


includes two centrioles; two of them move to opposite poles of nucleus and pull apart sister chromatids

asexual reproduction

all offspring inherit the name number and kinds of genes from a single parent

sexual reproduction

involves meiosis; forms mature reproductive cells called gametes; then fertilization


sequences of DNA that encode heritable information about traits


arise by mutation and encode slightly different versions of the same trait


mature reproductive cells formed by meiosis of germ cells


pairing at meiosis and having the same structural features and pattern of genes; same length, shape, and genes


having one of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species

crossing over

process where chromosome and its homologous partner exchange corresponding segments

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