46 terms

Chapter 17

The major function(s) of the digestive system are:
breakdown and absorption of food
The process that breaking down large molecules into small ones without affecting the chemical composition is known as:
mechanical digestion
How does the function of the digestive system relate to the characteristics of life?
It provides energy that can be used in metabolic processes.
What is xerostomia?
dry mouth
What disorder is characterized by a weakened intestinal wall resulting in the inner mucous membrane protruding through the wall?
Which layer of the digestive tract might contain folds and mucus-secreting glands?
What is segmentation?
Localized contractions and relaxations of smooth muscle that help to mix food and secretions.
What is peristalsis?
A propulsive movement of contents of the lumen from one area to another.
What structure is pulled upward during swallowing to close the opening between the nasal cavity and pharynx?
How many secondary teeth are in the upper jaw?
What part of the tooth is composed of cellular tissue similar to bone, but harder?
In which organ do the peristaltic waves typically only occur 2-3 times each day?
large intestine
Where do sensory receptors in the stomach and small intestines send the signals necessary for the vomitting reflex?
medulla oblongata
The alimentary canal extends, in its entirety, from
the mouth to the anus
The digestive system
ingests food, propels food, mechanically and chemically breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and defecates the remainder
The correct sequence for the layers in the walls of the alimentary canal from innermost to outermost is the
mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa
Peristalsis occurs in the digestive tract
from the pharynx to the anus.
Activities of the digestive system generally increase when it is stimulated by
parasympathetic impulses
The teeth that are best adapted for biting off hunks of food are the
The root canal of a tooth contains
blood vessels and nerves.
The mechanical breakup of food particles in the mouth is called
The uvula is
a projection from the soft palate
Because of their location, swollen palatine tonsils may interfere with
both breathing and swallowing
Salivary amylase digests
The functions of saliva include
moistening, binding and dissolving food particles; beginning chemical digestion of carbohydrates; and cleansing the teeth and mouth
The parotid glands are
the largest salivary glands
In the swallowing reflex
all of the above
The epiglottis is attached to the
Edith suffers from severe heartburn. She goes to her physician and is diagnosed with a hiatal hernia. This condition affects her
Heartburn is usually caused by the effects of gastric juice on the
Elliot thought that his peptic ulcers were caused by his nagging parents, and was surprised when the doctor handed him a prescription for medication to treat
a bacterial infection
The main part of the stomach is called the
It is good that Emily does not remember being a newborn, because she was miserable, vomiting frequently. An X-ray revealed hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The problem in Emily's digestive system, before surgery helped her, was
overgrowth of muscle that blocked the passageway from the stomach to the small intestine
Matthew takes a drug that inhibits the production of HCl in the stomach to ease the symptoms of a gastric ulcer. If he takes it for a long time, digestion of which nutrient would be affected the most?
The parietal cells of gastric glands secrete
hydrochloric acid.
All of the enzymes that digest protein are
secreted in an inactive form
Gastrin, which stomach cells secrete
increases secretion by the gastric glands
Secretion of cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by
protein and fat in the small intestine
The hormone secretin
stimulates release of pancreatic juice
_______ is a protein-digesting enzyme in pancreatic juice.
Acute pancreatitis is often caused by the conversion of
trypsinogen to trypsin
Pancreatic digestive secretions are regulated by
Functions of the liver include
all of the above.
Which of the following is true about bile?
Bile is produced by the liver
Which constituent of bile has a digestive function?
Bile salts
The liver
forms glucose from noncarbohydrates