A greater amount of filtration occurs at glomeruli than at other capillary beds of the body because:
glomeruli have a higher hydrostatic pressure.
Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole and/or vasodilation of the efferent arteriole will cause a(n) _____ in GFR
Water reabsorption from the proximal convoluted tubule is closely linked to the active reabsorption of:
Athletes might abuse which of the following chemicals made in the urinary system to improve performance by increasing red blood cell production?
Which of the following is correct concerning the location of the kidneys?
They are located behind the parietal peritoneum
Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?
Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb of nephron loop, ascending limb of nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule
A renal corpuscle is a _____, whereas a renal tubule is a _____.
cluster of blood capillaries and glomerular capsule; highly coiled tubule exiting the glomerular capsule
When sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport, chloride ions are
reabsorbed by passive transport
Which choice describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop?
Water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb
Barbara has the disease gout. The inflammation and pain in her joints is due to excess _____________ in her plasma, which leads to crystal deposits in her great toe joint.
As a result of very low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure
drops and filtration decreases
Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be
conserved and potassium ions to be excreted
Michael is 26 years old. He becomes dehydrated after a long run if he has not drunk enough. His infant son Sean, however, becomes dehydrated fairly frequently. This difference in susceptibility to dehydration is because
infant kidneys are less able to conserve water
A renal clearance test determines the rate at which the kidneys can
remove a particular substance from the blood
Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased by
both vasodilation of the afferent arteriole and vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole
The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by _____.
renin-angiotensin II vasoconstricting both the afferent and efferent arterioles
An adaptation of the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule for reabsorption is
microscopic projections called microvilli
A decrease in the glomerular capsule hydrostatic pressure will _____ the rate of glomerular filtration
The composition of glomerular filtrate differs from that of plasma by including
the same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules