Cambridge English Proficiency, Unit 06
Terms in this set (104)
(1) not contained or included within; extraneous;
(2) originating or acting from outside; external
a level playing field
(If the tax systems are different in each European country, how can industries start on a level playing field?)
a situation in which none of the competing parties has an advantage at the outset of a competitive activity
the start of something
(at/from the outset: You are going to love this book from the outset.)
splash out on
(splash out on things other than food)
(informal, mainly British) to spend (money) freely or extravagantly (on something)
(mentally/behaviourally disordered children)
(1) untidy; not neatly arranged;
(2) mentally ill
1) carefully arranged and looking nice (e.g. His hair was pulled back into a neat ponytail.)
neat and clean: Her uniform was always neat and clean.
neat and tidy: The house was always neat and tidy.
2) tending to keep things carefully arranged and looking nice (e.g. Chris is a very neat person.)
3) producing a result in a simple but intelligent way
a neat way of solving the problem
4) small and pleasing in appearance
(e.g. a neat little cottage)
5) good, or nice (american and informal)
(e.g. She's a really neat person - you'll like her.)
(She was impervious to his blandishments.)
(rarely singular) flattery intended to coax or cajole
1) not affected by something or not seeming to notice it
(e.g. impervious to: She continued to work, apparently impervious to the midday heat. / He carried on talking, impervious to the effect his words were having.)
2) something that is impervious to a substance does not let the substance pass through it (science)
to seek to manipulate or persuade (someone) by tenderness, flattery, pleading, etc
coax someone into/out of (doing) something
to gently persuade someone to do something or not do something
(e.g After dinner Lily was coaxed into singing several songs.
/ Rescuers told how they coaxed a man out of a suicide attempt.)
to persuade someone to do something by encouraging them gently or being nice to them
(e.g. I had hoped to cajole them into helping us.)
(anatomy) any one of the bands or sheets of tough fibrous connective tissue that restrict movement in joints, connect various bones or cartilages, support muscles, etc
a substance similar to bone that surrounds the joints (=places where two bones meet) in your body, or a piece of this substance
inflammation of the tendons of the elbow (epicondylitis) caused by overuse of the muscles of the forearm
a cord or band of white inelastic collagenous tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone or some other part
related to collagen
a fibrous scleroprotein of connective tissue and bones that is rich in glycine and proline and yields gelatine on boiling
mogigraphia or scrivener's palsy, a disorder caused by cramps or spasms of certain muscles of the hand and/or forearm, and presents itself while performing fine motor tasks, such as writing or playing an instrument
a splitting headache
a severe headache, as if one's head were splitting open
a sprained ankle
an injury that occurs when you roll, twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that help hold your ankle bones together. Ligaments help stabilize joints, preventing excessive movement.
"torn the ligaments"
asthenopia (aesthenopia) from the Greek word "asthen-opia : ασθεν-ωπία" or eye strain is an ophthalmological condition that manifests itself through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headache and occasional double vision.
symptoms of a cold
a sore throat, a blocked-up nose, a runny nose,
types of aches
toothache, backache, stomachache, a headache, earache
illness after you've eaten food that has gone bad
an ear infection
An ear infection occurs when a bacterial or viral infection affects the middle ear—the sections of your ear just behind the eardrum.
a torn ligament
There are four main ligaments in the knee that can become injured. During injury, a knee ligament may be stretched (sprained), or sometimes torn (ruptured). Ligament rupture can be partial (just some of the fibres that make up the ligament are torn) or complete (the ligament is torn through completely). Knee ligament injuries can cause pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising and reduced movement of your knee. Your knee joint may feel unstable and you may walk with a limp. Treatment of a knee ligament injury can depend on a number of things including which ligament is injured and how sporty and active you are.
a pulled muscle
injury to the muscle (Muskelzerrung)
making someone physically or mentally weak
(e.g. a debilitating illness/disease/condition)
a stretch or tear in a ligament (the bands of fibrous tissue that connect our bones at the joints).
is also a stretch or tear, this time affecting the muscle itself or a tendon (the tissue that connect the muscles to the bones).
(Male students eschew balanced diet in favour of supplements)
(transitive) to keep clear of or abstain from (something disliked, injurious, etc); shun; avoid
(social changes that have been brought about by new technology
the UK's first study of the dietary changes brought about by going to university delves into more wide-ranging issues)
to make something happen, especially to cause changes in a situation
(the UK's first study of the dietary changes brought about by going to university delves into more wide-ranging issues)
to look for information by searching through something thoroughly
pathologically insatiable hunger, esp when caused by a brain lesion;
bulimia nervosa a disorder characterized by compulsive overeating followed by vomiting: sometimes associated with anxiety about gaining weight
anorexia, anorexia nervosa
a disorder characterized by fear of becoming fat and refusal of food, leading to debility and even death
a brain lesion
an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or a computerized tomography (CT) scan. On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don't look like normal brain tissue.
(1) any structural change in a bodily part resulting from injury or disease;
(2) an injury or wound
weakness or infirmity
(functioning as singular) the scientific study and regulation of food intake and preparation
apply for a grant
Bounty, contribution, gift, or subsidy (in cash or kind) bestowed by a government or other organization (called the grantor) for specified purposes to an eligible recipient (called the grantee). Grants are usually conditional upon certain qualifications as to the use, maintenance of specified standards, or a proportional contribution by the grantee or other grantor(s).
(the gene that controls susceptibility to nicotine addiction)
the ability or tendency to be impressed by emotional feelings; sensitivity
(they want to get rid of the burgeoning beer gut)
the belly or abdomen, esp when protruding
the substance in an animal ovum consisting of protein and fat that nourishes the developing embryo
liver and kidney failure
when liver and kidney stop functioning
(anaemia caused by iron deficiency;
They're also going to have a deficiency in good-quality fats)
a lack of something that your body needs
disinclination to (do sth)
(already indicates a disinclination to buy what Costa calls "proper food".)
unwillingness, reluctance, or aversion
a table at a formal meal where the most important people eat, for example at a traditional university such as Oxford
a regulated diet
take part (in something)
to be involved in an activity with other people
(e.g. They will be taking part in the discussions, along with many other organizations. / Elections were held, but the KLA refused to take part.)
either of two upright posts supporting the crossbar of a goal
(fight they literally throw in the towel to indicate their conceding of the fight)
to stop trying to win a war, competition, or argument because you realize that you cannot win it;
to give something that you own or control to someone so that they own or control it;
if you concede a goal, point, or game, the person or team you are playing scores a goal or point or wins a game
a children's game in which a player throws a small stone or other object to land in one of a pattern of squares marked on the ground and then hops over to it to pick it up
craving for/after (ˈkreɪvɪŋ)
an intense desire or longing
a measure of how likely something is to happen;
(statistics) a measure or estimate of the degree of confidence one may have in the occurrence of an event, measured on a scale from zero (impossibility) to one (certainty).
1) to pull something so that it separates into pieces or gets a hole in it, or to become damaged in this way
(It's made of very thin material that tears easily.
He'd torn his raincoat.
tear a hole in something: I've torn a hole in my sweater!
tear something to pieces/bits/shreds: Mary tore the letter to pieces without reading it.
tear something in two: Reynolds tore the contract in two.
tear something on something: I must have torn my sleeve on that nail.)
2) to damage something such as a muscle by stretching it until it pulls apart
(I tore a muscle playing football.)
a blocked-up nose
when your nose is clogged
a runny nose
when you have a cold with a lot of outflow out of your nose
if your nose is bleeding
the feeling before vomitting
allergic to pollen
an illness, usually not a serious one
How to use "ache" in a sentence
earache/backache/ a headache
She has got:
a short repeated sound that you make in your throat without intending to, usually because you have been eating or drinking too quickly
(She has/gets hiccups)
1) a small soft creature that sticks to the skin of other animals in order to feed on their blood. Leeches were often used in the past as a type of medical treatment.
2) someone who tries to get money, food, or other benefits from someone else
1) to understand and remember something that you hear or read
(e.g. I'm not sure how much of his explanation she took in.)
2) to accept something as real or true
(e.g. He still hasn't really taken in his father's death.)
1) able to move and bend your body very easily and in a graceful way
(e.g. Do some stretching exercises to keep yourself supple.)
->a supple object or material is soft and bends easily
1) someone who is very enthusiastic about something
a devotee of science fiction
2) someone who follows a particular religion or religious leader
take it out of somebody
to make someone very tired:
(e.g. Running around after 25 preschoolers takes it out of me by the end of the week.)
1) to get something as a result of something that you do
(e.g. We will all reap the benefits of this important research.)
2) to cut and gather a crop such as wheat
1) special importance or attention that is given to one thing in particular
(e.g. emphasis on: The main emphasis should be on quality rather than quantity.
We place great emphasis on staff development.
place/lay/put emphasis on something: We should place greater emphasis on staff development.)
2) the extra loudness with which you say a particular phrase, word, or part of a word so that people give special attention to it
(e.g. 'I will not!' she said with emphasis.
emphasis on: The emphasis is usually on the first syllable.)
1) to make someone or something be or become something
(e.g. Solar power could become a viable energy source, rendering fossil fuels obsolete.
His back injury had rendered him unfit for work.
Failure to supply these details will render the contract invalid.)
1) something that you cannot see clearly:
(e.g. If I don't wear my glasses, everything is just a blur.)
2) something that you cannot remember or understand clearly:
(e.g. It all happened so long ago that it's just a blur to me now.
The last few days seem to have gone by in a blur.)
1) to keep objects moving through the air by catching them as they fall and throwing them back into the air
2) to try to balance several things that you are holding without dropping any of them
(e.g. She was juggling a glass of champagne and two plates of food.)
3) to try to do several important things at the same time, especially when this is difficult
(e.g. the pressures of juggling a career and children)
4) to change the way that things are done, in order to achieve what you want
(e.g. After juggling our schedules around, we've managed to arrange a meeting.)
5) to organize how you spend any money available so that you can find the money that you need to do different things
(e.g. It's a matter of juggling income and expenditure.)
1) to hold someone or something firmly, for example because you are afraid or in pain, or do not want to lose them
(e.g. Women clutched small children as they left.)
2) to try to take hold of someone or something because you are afraid or in pain, or in order to stop yourself from falling
(e.g. clutch at: An officer stumbled and clutched at the handrail.)
a slipped disc
a painful medical condition affecting your back, in which one of the parts that connect the bones in your spine has moved out of its usual place
slightly worried or nervous
apprehensive about: Leonora felt very apprehensive about his visit.
apprehensive of: It's a strategy that many teachers are apprehensive of using.
attracting your interest or attention because of some unusual feature
(e.g. This is a striking example of how misleading statistics can be.
Her eye make-up was very striking.
a striking resemblance/difference: There are some striking differences in the two theories.)
1) a passage between rows of seats, for example in a church, theatre, or plane, or between the shelves of a supermarket
(e.g. Breakfast cereals are in aisle three.)
extremely small in size or amount
The risk to public health is minuscule.
1) involving a lot of sitting and not much exercise
(sedentary lifestyles, a sedentary office job)
2) not moving to different areas (formal)
1) something that is difficult or boring and seems to take a long time
(Getting fit doesn't have to be a hard slog.)
2) a long and tiring walk
(a steep uphill slog)
1) to work hard and for a long time doing something that is difficult or boring
(I slogged my way through the first 200 pages before finally abandoning it.
slog away: Most of the night was spent slogging away at the report.-> sich mit etwas abmühen)
2) to make a long and tiring journey somewhere, especially by walking
(slog up/through/along etc: The soldiers were slogging through the mud.)
3) to hit someone or something very hard, especially in sport
to hate someone or something and have no respect for them
(I despised him for the way he treated his children.)
to walk somewhere with slow heavy steps
(trudge through/back/up etc: He trudged through deep snow to the village.)
boring and unpleasant work that you have to do
1) intended to impress people or attract their admiration, in a way that you think is extreme and unnecessary
(an ostentatious display of wealth.)
2) always trying to impress people with how rich, important, skillful etc you are
(Although extremely wealthy, Simon and his family were never ostentatious.)
medical doctor specialized in eye and vision care
someone whose job is to test people's sight and make and sell glasses. The shop that they work in is also called an optician or an optician's.
extremely happy and excited
1) the most successful or exciting part of someone's life
(pinnacle of: This film marked the pinnacle of her acting career.)
2) the top of a very high mountain
3) a tall thin pointed piece of stone or rock
1) an honor given to someone for their work
(the TV industry's ultimate accolade)
2) an expression of praise and admiration
She was full of accolades for his work.
1) a situation in which something does not change for a long time
2) a situation in which no progress is made or no action is taken
3) a feeling of not wanting to move or do anything
(Trägheit, auch Physik-Vokabular)
not interested in meeting anyone outside your own group or country, or not interested in learning new ideas or ways of doing things
1) a sweeping change or development has a major effect
2) not based on specific facts or details and therefore not completely accurate or fair
3) with a wide impressive curved shape
(a sweeping staircase)
a set of stairs in a building, including the banister that you hold onto when you go up or down
a structure like a fence along the edge of stairs, designed to keep you from falling off the edge
1) not costing or spending much money
(It would be more economical to switch the machine off at night.
the most economical way to run your new business)
2) not wasting anything
a beautifully economical process
1) relating to the economy of a particular country or region
(Economic growth is slowing down.
factors that hinder economic development)
a) relating to business, industry and trade
b) relating to money
2) making satisfactory profit from business activities
We are going to have to make some cutbacks in order to continue to be economic.
harken back to
1) to bring back to mind
(If I run out of ideas, I will harken back to my youth and see if I can't remember a few more.
Let's harken back to what we learned last week.)
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