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47 terms

Chapter 19

STUDY
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What is the definition of ventilation?
The movement of air in and out of the lungs
The anatomical name of the voice box is the
larynx
What is the name of the flap-like cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the layrnx, trachea, and lungs?
epiglottic cartilage
What is the name of the volume of air moved in or out of the lungs during a quiet respiratory cycle?
tidal volume
Which lung volumes can be added together to calculate the functional residual capacity?
residual volume and expiratory reserve volume
What nonrespiratory air movement helps to clear the upper respiratory passageways?
sneezing
What nonrespiratory air movement is due to a spastic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed?
hiccup
Where is the ventral respiratory group located?
In the medulla oblongata in the brain
What is the effect of the thinning of alveolar walls and coalescing of alveoli that occurs with aging on alveolar surface area and gas exchange?
A decrease in surface area and decrease in gas exchange
How is the majority of oxygen transported in the blood?
Bound to the heme portion of hemoglobin
What cell of the alveolus is part of the respiratory membrane?
Type I cell
What is the term for the attraction of water molecules that contributes to the reduced alveolar size during expiration?
surface tension
Respiration is
the entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells
The events of respiration are
ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration
Breathing functions to
deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment
Which of the following bones does not house a sinus?
Zygomatic
Which of these laryngeal cartilages is single?
Cricoid
The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the
tension on the vocal cords
Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication - an enzyme - that thins the mucus. If she didn't take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of
infection.
The vocal cords are in the
larynx
Which of the following is not a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages?
Cooling exhaled air
The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the
force of air passing over the vocal cords
A flashlight placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room illuminates the
frontal sinus
Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may
obstruct the airway
The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called
bronchoscopy
The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity
all of the above
The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______.
common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only
The trachea
is all of the above
As the respiratory tube branches become smaller in diameter,
the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium
The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes.
superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior
The force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the
atmospheric pressure
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the
elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension
The volume of air that enters the lungs during forced maximal inspiration is the
inspiratory reserve volume
Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume?
Vital capacity
Respiratory distress syndrome in newborns is caused by
lack of surfactant
The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by
a thin film of serous fluid
Air entering the potential space of the pleural cavity is called
pneumothorax.
A simple spirometer cannot measure which of the following air volumes?
Residual volume
The volume of air that enters (or leaves) during a single respiratory cycle is the
tidal volume
The first event in inspiration is
the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract
The first event in expiration is
the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax
The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known as
Boyle's law
A sudden inspiration caused by a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed is a
hiccup.
The respiratory control areas are in the
pons and medulla oblongata
"I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat because
increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors
Baby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy's dad snores very loudly. Timothy's condition differs from his father's in that infant apnea is
a central problem of respiratory control
The ventral part of the medulla oblongata near the origin of the vagus nerve has
central chemoreceptors