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CH 10 & 12 AP Human Geography Vocabulary Terms
Terms in this set (87)
As a percentage of daily requirement is an important index of development. People in MDCs generally consume more than 130% of their daily requirements, but most people in LDCs barely get enough to sustain themselves. The problem is worst in Africa, where most people do not eat enough.
agricultural labor force
The number of people who work in agriculture. This is important because a large value indicates that the country is likely an LDC dependent on agriculture, while a small value indicates that there are fewer people working in agriculture, meaning that the agriculture is more efficient.
core periphery model
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining
An indicator of development. MDCs tend to consume much more energy per capita than do LDCs. This will be important in the future because as LDCs begin to industrialize, there will be a great strain on the world's energy supply
foreign direct investment
a joint venture between a foreign company and a United States company
gross domestic product
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year.
gross national product
The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year.
human development index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
ladder of development
Sachs -"Ladder theory" is a theory of economic development which claims that all countries tend to go through roughly the same pattern when transforming from a poor economy to a rich one. The countries of Western Europe, Canada and the United States followed this pattern when they transformed their poor economies into rich ones during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
less developed countries
Also known as developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in economic development
measures of development
used to distinguish LDCs from MDCs. They include GDP, literacy rate, life expectancy, caloric intake, etc.
control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures
purchasing power parity
a measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
rostow, W. W.
Prominent for his role in the shaping of American policy in Southeast Asia during the 1960s, he was a staunch opponent of communism, and was noted for a belief in the efficacy of capitalism and free enterprise.
stages of growth model
linear theory of development that developed countries go through a common patterns 1)Traditional Society, 2)Transitional Stage 3)Take Off 4)Drive to Maturity and 5)High Mass Consumption
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
The communication of specific plans, designs, or educational programs necessary for the use of new technologies from one society or class to another.
underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
the communist and state-planned countries of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China (Cold War)
the largely democratic and free-market states of the United States and Western Europe (Cold War to today)
world systems theory
Wallersteins theory of the core, semi periphery, periphery, and external areas. The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy. Semi perihpery was the buffer between the core and periphery. Periphery are states that lack strong central gov'ts or are controlled by other states. External areas are states that mainteained their own economic system and for the mosr part, remianed outside of the capitalist world economy
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
The savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores
the contamination of the atmosphere by the introduction of pollutants from human and natural sources.
U.S. companies are the largest single producer with plants in 35 states producing about $39.1 billion in products and exports. U.S. supply is comprised of three sources, primary, imports and recycled. Important because it is a large industry that is important in transportation, packaging and building and construction.
bid rent theory
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
break of bulk point
A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller riverboats for inland distribution.
canadian industrial heartland
Canada has a sizable manufacturing sector, centered in Central Canada, with the automobile industry especially important.
series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market
the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers.
circular and cumulative causation
a process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less advantaged peripheral regions
The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
economic activities that allow a community to exist. For example, a town might exist because a mineral resource in the area is being developed
economies of scale
factors that cause a producer's average cost per unit to fall as output rises
tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
renewable: hydropower, biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, biofuels, wave/ tidal; nonrenewable: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear (some classify as renewable?)
a port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties
export processing zones
zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
a periodic charge that does not vary with business volume (as insurance or rent or mortgage payments etc.)
industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms
system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford
South Korea (largest), Taiwan (moving towards high tech), Singapore (Center for information and technology), Hong Kong(Break of Bulk Point): Because of their booming economies.
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
economic development, or growth, is not uniform over an entire region, but instead takes place around a specific pole.
a geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by Halford Mackinder during the first two decades of the twentieth century, that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. He further proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would command the vast "heartland" to the east.
a region with extremely dense industry It is usually heavily urbanized (India, Japan, Korea, Poland)
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
internal division of labor
Closely associated with the growth of total output and trade, the rise of capitalism, and of the complexity of industrialization processes.
an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
"just in time" manufacturing
a manufacturing system in which materials used for manufacturer and/or sale are produced precisely at the time they are needed. As a result, no costly storage of inventory is required. Electronic record-keeping and communication about inventory and needs has made this system possible
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
least-cost location theory
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
major manufacturing regions
1. Eastern Anglo America, 2. Western and Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Eastern Asia
manufacturing export zones
host country establishes areas with favorable tax and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations
manufacturing/warehouse location considerations
industrial parks, agglomeration, shared services, zoning, transportation, taxes, environmental considerations
an assembly plant in Mexico (near the United States border)
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
The tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs.
The tendency of an economic activity to locate near or at its source of raw material; this is experienced when material costs are highly variable spatially and/or represent a significant share of total costs.
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
North American Free Trade Agreement
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
of or relating to a society or economy marked by a lessened importance of manufacturing and an increase of services, information, and research
disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds.
a region in California south of San Francisco that is noted for its concentration of high-technology industries
specialized economic zones
specific area within a country that has tax incentives & less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
areas alone or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to research, development, and sale of high technology products
Principle that maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location.
The population required to make provision of services economically feasible./In economic geography and central place theory, the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service
the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.
The deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed.
a place for a city that is at a significant point on transportation routes.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
a market-oriented industry whose establishments are distributed in direct proportion of population
a cost that rises or falls depending on how much is produced
German geographer who was a major theorists of industrial location. He devised a model of how to understand industrial locations in regard to several factors, including labor supply, markets, resource location, and transpiration.
a group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
dependent centers, provide relatively unskilled jobs and depend for their economic health on decisions make in the world cities, regional command and control centers, and specialized producer-service centers. Four subtypes of dependent centers can be identified in the United States
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