_________________ is a theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
_____________ is the learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired (which makes the person more likely to repeat the action) or by something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated).
Operant conditioning (aka Instrumental conditioning)
What is the general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived?
What is the general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception?
___________ are cells in an observer's brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed that action.
____________ is a research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed.
The _______________ is an approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood and adulthood.
In an experiment, the ______________ is the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable.
independent variable (aka experimental variable)
A(n) ____________ consists of people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion.
____________ is a term referring to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of a person's, or a species', genetic inheritance.
The ______________ is the view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.
ecological-systems approach (later renamed bioecological approach)
The ____________ is a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society.
What is the mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard?
The ____________ is a group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.
A _____________ provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development.
_____________ is a hybrid research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages and then follow those groups over the years.
__________ is a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.
A(n) ___________ is a time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen.
A(n) ___________ is a group defined by the shared age of its members, who, because they were born around the same time, move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts.
According to behaviorism, ____________ is the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place.
The _____________ is a theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
_____________ is a learning process in which a meaningful stimulus gradually comes to be connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before that learning process began.
Classical conditioning (aka respondent conditioning)
Behaviorism is also called ____________ because why?
learning theory ; bc it describes the laws and lessons by which behavior is learned
What type of research is defined as research that considers qualities instead of quantities?
Research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales, is what type of research?
____________ is a technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something that is desired such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile to a lonely person.
The _____________ is a way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data-based conclusions.
__________ is a method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants behavior in a systematic and objective manner in a natural setting, a laboratory, or in searches of archival data.
The science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time is known as
the science of human development.
The _____________ is a time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or happens most easily, although it may still happen later with more difficulty.
ex: a child is considered a sensitive period regarding learning a language
A(n) ____________ is a research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means.
A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence is known as
socioeconomic status (SES).
(aka social class)
__________ is an idea that is based on shared perceptions, not on objective reality.
Many age-related terms such as childhood, adolescence, yuppy, and senior citizen are
The ______________ is an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior.
social learning theory
What is the basic principle of the social learning theory?
That even without scientific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people.
A psychology professor publishes the results of her research in a professional journal. By doing so, she:
allows other scientists to evaluate or build on her experiment.
A reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because:
many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers.
Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to:
develop a hypothesis.
Pregnant women who are HIV-positive:
can reduce the risk of infecting their fetus by taking antiretroviral drugs.
Gross motor skills such a riding a tricycle are acquired:
through a combination of brain maturation and practice.
To prevent tooth decay, the most important thing parents can do is ensure that their children:
don't eat too much sugar.
When their 3-month-old daughter Amber lies down to take a nap, she usually turns her head and bends her limbs to the right. Her parents think this may predict later:
Writing your name is a ______, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) ______.
fine motor skill; gross motor skill
According to Freud, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:
identifying with their father.
The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:
expectations for maturity.
Child psychologists agree that drugs are:
both underused and overused with treating children with ADHD.
Maggie has dyslexia. Most likely, she experiences the most difficulty with the ______of words.
Children who attempt to right themselves in the face of adversity need:
to connect with at least one supportive adult.
Compared with younger children, older children:
more often choose friends of the same sex and background as themselves.
Kohlberg's theory has been criticized because:
the theory is seen as not taking into account cultural differences.
According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and no commitment, is:
During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically:
attempt to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary.
Sexual self-definition is comprised of three aspects:
gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation.
The first step in the process of self-definition involves:
establishing consistency of emotions, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations.
The term "parasuicide" is used rather than the term "failed suicide" because "failed suicide":
assumes that the individual intended to kill himself or herself.
According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in:
stagnation and personal impoverishment.
After the first ten years most married couples find:
tension decreases as children become more independent.