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BIOL 1021 Exam #4
Terms in this set (36)
What is meant by the description "antiparallel" regarding the strands that make up DNA?
A. The 5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 5' to 3' direction of the other strand.
B. One strand contains only purines and the other contains only pyrimidines.
C. Base pairings create unequal spacing between the two DNA strands.
D. The twisting nature of DNA creates nonparallel strands.
At a specific area of a chromosome, the sequence of nucleotides below is present where the chain opens to form a replication fork: 3' C C T A G G C T G C A A T C C 5'
An RNA primer is formed starting at the underlined T (T) of the template. Which of the following represents the primer sequence?
A. 5' G C C U A G G 3'
B. 5' G C C T A G G 3'
C. 5' A C G T T A G G 3'
D. 5' A C G U U A G G 3'
Which of the following enzymes is not matched correctly with its appropriate function?
A. Topoisomerase- relieves strain on the unwinding DNA strand.
B. DNA Polymerase III- adds nucleotides in the 3' to 5' direction.
C. DNA Polymerase I- removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA.
D. DNA ligase- connects and seals Okazaki fragments.
Which of the following best describes the significance of the TATA box in eukaryotic promoters?
A. It is the recognition site for a specific proteins and activators.
B. It sets the reading frame of the mRNA.
C. It is the recognition site for ribosomal binding.
D. Its significance has not yet been determined.
Accuracy in the translation of mRNA into the primary structure of a polypeptide depends on specificity in the
A. bonding of the anticodon to the codon.
B. bonding of the anticodon to the codon and the attachment of amino acids to tRNAs.
C. attachment of amino acids to tRNAs.
D. binding of ribosomes to mRNA.
What is the effect of a nonsense mutation in a gene?
A. It alters the reading frame of the mRNA.
B. It prevents introns from being excised.
C. It has no effect on the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein.
D. It introduces a premature stop codon into the mRNA.
Of the following, which is the most current description of a gene?
A. A DNA sequence that is expressed to form a functional product: either RNA or prptein.
B. A DNA and RNA sequence combination that results in an enzymatic product.
C. A discrete unit of hereditary information that consists of a sequence of amino acids.
D. A unit of heredity that causes formation of a phenotypic characteristic.
Your brother has just purchased a new plastic model airplane. He places all the parts on the table in approximately the positions in which they will be located when the model is complete. His actions are analogous to which process in development?
A. Morphogenesis B. Differentiation
C. Pattern formation D. Determination
The host specificity of a virus is determined by
A. the enzymes produced by the virus before it infects the cell.
B. the proteins on its surface and that of the host.
C. whether its nucleic acid is DNA or RNA.
D. the proteins in the host's cytoplasm.
Why do RNA viruses appear to have higher rates of mutation?
A. Replication of their genomes does not involve proofreading.
B. RNA viruses are more sensitive to mutagens.
C. RNA viruses replicate faster.
D. RNA nucleotides are more unstable then DNA nucleotides.
What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses?
A. It hydrolyzes the host cell's DNA.
B. It converts host cell RNA into viral DNA.
C. It uses viral RNA as a template for making complementary RNA strands.
D. It uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
Besides the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme, what other molecule is responsible for charging tRNAs with an amino acid?
A. cAMP B. ATP
C. RNA polymerase D. GTP
Cytosine makes up 42% of the nucleotides in a sample of double-stranded DNA from an organism. Approximately what percentage of the nucleotides in this sample will be thymine?
A. 8% B. 42%
C. 16% D. 31%
Besides the ability of some cancer cells to over-proliferate (over grow), what else could logically result in a tumor?
A. Inability of chromosomes to meet at the metaphase plate.
B. Enhanced anchorage dependence.
C. Lack of appropriate cell death.
D. Changes in the order of cell cycle stages.
Most genes are in the "off" state and are not expressed. How then are genes turned on?
A. DNA helicase must first bind to the promoter site of the DNA.
B. RNA polymerase must first bind to the exons
C. MicroRNA binds to the DNA to initiate transcription.
D. Transcription factors must first bind to the DNA.
Which genes are responsible for your overall structure, such as how many legs you have and where they develop?
A. Proto-oncogenes B. Oncogenes
C. Homeotic genes D. Growth factor genes
Why can a person who is unable to produce insulin, be successfully treated with insulin derived from genetically modified bacteria?
A. The gene that produces insulin in humans was inserted into the bacteria where it continues to produce human insulin.
B. The insulin-producing gene of bacteria was altered to have the same base sequence as the human counterpart and now produces the human version of insulin.
C. Typical bacterial insulin is exactly the same as human insulin.
D. Human insulin was inserted into bacteria and when the bacteria reproduce, so too does the insulin.
When is an unborn child called a fetus?
A. From cleavage to birth
B. From the 9th week of pregnancy to birth
C. From conception through birth
D. From cleavage to the 9th week of pregnancy
How would the cDNA created in the lab compare to the original DNA?
A. It would be circular instead of linear because bacteria are used in the process and they can only work with circular DNA molecules.
B. It would be single stranded because it is made by copying only the coding strand of DNA.
C. It would be longer because it would also include sequences needed to stabilize the molecule.
D. It would be shorter because it only represents the genes that were transcribed in the cell at the time.
Would a human clone have a bellybutton?
A. Yes B. No
When an individual is first exposed to the smallpox virus, several days pass before significant numbers of specific antibody molecules and T cells are produced. However, a second exposure to the virus causes a large and rapid production of antibodies and T cells. This response is an example of
A. antigenic determinants.
C. interferon production.
D. immunological memory.
_________ is the source of antibody-producing cells.
A. B cells B. Macrophages
C. Plasma cells D. T cells
The large, irregularly shaped cells that kill bacteria by digesting them are called
A. erythrocytes. B. macrophages.
C. bacteriophages. D. antibodies.
The cell-mediated immune response is brought about by
A. B cells. B. T cells.
C. erythrocytes. D. fibroblasts.
A boy falls while riding his bike. A scrape on his hand almost immediately begins to bleed and becomes red, warm, and swollen. What response is occurring?
A. Inflammatory response
B. Lytic response
C. Adaptive immune response
D. Tumor response
How is RNA different from DNA?
Ribose instead of deoxyribose
Uracil instead of thymine
New DNA molecules are made up of one of the original parental strands plus a new half.
As a result, DNA replication is called____________.
What are the 3 steps of DNA replication?
initiation, elongation, termination
Polymerase activity 5' to 3'. Removes the RNA Primer laid by Primase and adds complementary DNA nucleotides :
DNA polymerase I
Builds a new duplex DNA strand by adding nucleotides in the 5' to 3' direction. Also performs proof-reading and error correction (exonuclease activity 3'to 5'):
DNA polymerase III
Bind to ssDNA and prevent the DNA double helix from re-annealing after DNA helicase unwinds it, thus maintaining the strand separation, and facilitating the synthesis of the nascent strand:
Single stranded binding proteins
Also known as helix destabilizing enzyme. Unwinds the DNA double helix at the Replication Fork:
Relaxes the DNA from its super-coiled nature and relieves strain of unwinding by DNA helicase:
Topoisomerase (DNA gyrase)
Provides a starting point of RNA (or DNA) for DNA polymerase to begin synthesis of the new DNA strand:
Re-anneals the semi-conservative strands and joins Okazaki Fragments of the lagging strand
a_________ is a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA
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