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Who is the founder of the science of psychology?


Structuralism is to functionalism as

Analysis of basic elements is to investigation of purpose

Of the six contemporary perspectives in psychology, which one seems to be the most optimistic about human nature?


Both the psychoanalytic and behavioral perspectives share the belief that

People do not have much control over the things that affect their behavior

"My professor said we should spend about 10 hours a week studying if we want to get a good grade. I don't know what is wrong with me, but I just cannot make myself study that much. What should I do?" If someone applies the behavioral perspective to this student, then what suggestion would be made?

Behavior is affected by our environments. What kind of environment do you create for yourself to study in? Does it help you to focus and concentrate, or is it full of distractions? Also, do you find ways to reward yourself for studying? If studying is rewarded, then you will study more

Numerous studies have shown that people tend to see what they expect to see. This finding that our expectations affect our perception is most consistent with which theoretical perspective?


Studies of students' lecture notes have discovered that

The average student often writes down less than 40% of the crucial ideas in the lecture

In the process of critical thinking, the term critical means

being analytical and evaluating ideas

Marion is always late. Why is she always late? One person suggests that it is because she thinks it's better to arrive late and that she thinks arriving early or on time is not cool. This kind of explanation is consistent with which psychological perspective?


A friend recently got married and said that her new husband gets upset with her whenever she burps out loud. When I asked her why he gets upset, she said she thinks it's because he was raised in a very prim and proper household. His parents told him and his siblings that burping out loud was unacceptable and they were punished whenever they did it.


Imagine that someone tells a long story about an unusual habit her father has. She asks why her father does that. Which of the following is most consistent with the way a psychologist is trained to think?

"It is not a simple answer, and we need to gather more information about your father before drawing any conclusions . . ."

Imagine that a cognitive psychologist wants to study visualization among athletes. She starts by stating the hypothesis: "Visualization will improve performance among pole vaulters." What is the dependent variable in this example?

performance among pole vaulters

To test her hypothesis, the cognitive psychologist will do an experiment. She randomly selects 20 pole vaulters from all active NCAA pole vaulters and then randomly assigns 10 of them to receive visualization training and 10 to not receive visualization training. The best label for the group of 10 pole vaulters who do not receive visualization training is


The 10 pole vaulters who receive visualization training meet one-on-one with a coach who talks to them about their goals and then teaches them how to create mental pictures of preparing for and completing a pole vault that is a personal best. The other 10 pole vaulters who do not get visualization training meet one-on-one with a coach who talks to them about their goals but does not teach them visualization. At each pole vaulter's next NCAA competition, the researcher records the height in inches of the pole vaulter's best vault. What is the independent variable in this example?


A middle school English teacher decides to use her students for an experiment to see if reading aloud affects how well her students understand poetry. In her first class period in the morning at 8:20 AM, she does not have students read aloud. In her next to last class period in the afternoon at 1:45 PM, she has students read aloud for half of the class. She does this each day for a week and then gives all of the students a new poem to analyze and grades their work on a 0 - 100 scale. In this example, the confounding variable is

Class time

n studying the relationship between sleep and physical illness, researchers have found that college students who get more sleep tend to get sick less often. This correlation proves that

the correlation allows us to say with certainty that there is a link between sleep and illness but it does not tell us why they are linked

The "I have a friend who" syndrome is another term for the tendency to

Rely on anecdotal evidence

An acquaintance once told me about a time when she had a bad cold and she drank a lot of grapefruit juice. She recovered from that cold quickly, and she is now convinced that grapefruit juice cures colds. Why is it NOT correct to draw such a conclusion?

There are numerous uncontrolled extraneous variables that could explain what happened, There is no control group for comparison, The experience of just one person cannot be used to make general statements about major phenomena

In reading about different research methods, you learned that each method has advantages and disadvantages. What is the common thread that cuts across all methods used in psychological science?

they all involve systematic collection of information with the goal of improving our understanding of behavior

Look at the drawing above. If electrical stimulation was applied to the spot labeled 4 on your cortex, what would you be most likely to experience?

a sensation somewhere on the left side of your body, maybe as if someone was touching your skin

The drunken driving suspect was unable to hold his hand out to the side and bring his finger to a stop on his noise because one of the brain structures depressed first by alcohol is the


While studying late at night, Mindy hears a loud bang outside her door. Her heart starts to race, she feels her face flush, and her palms start to sweat. These reactions are part of the fight-or-flight response, and they are caused by activation of the

sympathetic nervous system

Janetta is having a problem with muscle spasms and her doctor gives her a pill to reduce them. She asks her doctor how the pill works, and he says it affects a neurotransmitter that controls muscles. Which neurotransmitter is the drug affecting?


When describing the brain, what does the term neuroplasticity refer to?

the flexibility and changeability of the brain's structure and organization

How does a signal travel from one neuron to the next?

one neuron releases neurotransmitters that travel across the synaptic cleft to bind with another neuron

Which part of the cortex monitors and directs thought processes and is therefore involved in complex cognitive activities, such as planning, paying attention, and getting organized?

A. primary cortex

prefrontal cortex

Fiona puts her hands into a sinkful of lukewarm water. Luke puts his hands into a sinkful of ice-cold water. Based on what is known about neural transmission, you would predict that the action potentials will

be the same in both individuals due to the all-or-none principle

Ian has been in a coma since he was in a serious car accident. He is still on medical life support because he is unable to breathe and his heart will not beat without assistance. It is likely that the accident caused damage to Ian's


Elizabeth just caught sight of a red and green hummingbird flying in the arboretum. The neural impulses from her eye will eventually travel to her occipital lobe, but first they must pass through which structure to be directed to the correct location for visual processing?


Both sides of our brains are involved in all complex thought, emotion, and behavior. Therefore, it is wrong to describe a person or activity as right- or left-brained. Which structure enables the two sides of our brains to be in constant communication to collaborate and integrate their activities?

corpus callosum

Caffeine is the main active ingredient in stimulating beverages such as coffee, green tea, colas, Mountain Dew, Red Bull, and many energy drinks. Caffeine reduces feelings of fatigue because it is a very effective blocker of which neurotransmitter?


How is the "use it or lose it" aspect of neuroplasticity helpful for understanding why this 10% claim is a myth?

If you used only 10% of your brain, then the other 90% that is not being used would shrink and die.

When you want to see a faint object in the dark, like a dim star in the night sky, you should not look directly at it. Instead, you should look slightly above or below it because

rods are most plentiful just outside the fovea

Cells in the visual cortex can be characterized as feature detectors because

each cell is highly specialized and responds only to very specific aspects of complex stimuli

Researchers have found that the eye has three different types of cones, each most sensitive to a particular color (red, green or blue). Which theory of color vision is supported by this finding

trichromatic theory

Feature analysis describes form perception as involving a progression from individual elements to the whole, such as from individual letters to whole words. This type of processing is known as


The concept of perceptual set fits which type of processing?


People often group elements to create a sense of wholeness. For example, if a drawing of a familiar form has some small gaps in it, the mind will automatically fill in the missing bits to perceive a whole form. The name of the Gestalt principle at work here is


In honor of a big win, Mike threw a party and put blue food coloring in all the food to make it look Carolina blue -- blue cookies, blue cake, blue ranch dip, etc. The food coloring had no odor or flavor itself. It just made everything blue. At the party, his friends were not eating very much so he asked one of them what was wrong, and the friend said, "All this blue food tastes funny. I can't eat it." What concept best explains why changing a food's color can change the perception of its flavor?

Intermodal perception

Joel entered a room with a strong, peculiar odor. At first, it was very pungent, but after about 30 minutes, Joel did not even smell it any more. His friend entered the room and said, "Dude, what stinks?" and Joel said, "Really, it smelled bad when I first got here but I thought it was gone." Why did Joel no longer smell the odor?

he experienced sensory adaptation

Which perceptual concept is most useful for understanding why someone who EXPECTS to see sex in advertisements will see some sort of sexual message in just about any ad?

perceptual set

The fact that people in the US would be reluctant to eat the Balinese delicacy of dragonflies boiled in coconut milk illustrates which of the unifying themes presented in chapter 1?

Behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage

Which of the following is an example of sensory adaptation?

A person who jumps into a cool swimming pool feels very cold at first and then gradually stops feeling cold.

The frequency theory best explains _____ sounds, while the place theory best explains _____ sounds.

low-pitched; high-pitched

Imagine that you are asked to stare at a bright red dot. After about 30 seconds, you are instructed to shift your gaze to a white sheet of paper. If you have normal color vision, then opponent process theory indicates that you will now see

a green dot

Some basic aspects of taste perception are inborn, such as whether you are a supertaster, a nontaster, or a medium taster. However, most of an individual's taste preferences are heavily influenced by

learning and exposure

In what way is the olfactory system different from the other senses?

Pathway of processing in the brain: It is the only one that does not go through the thalamus before reaching the cortex

Which of the following is an example of the persuasion technique known as the door-in-the-face technique?

The first time Brent sees Angie, he walks up to her and asks her to marry him. When Angie says no, Brent asks if she will get a cup of coffee with him.

Jessie completed her bachelor's degree at UNC Chapel Hill and went to another university for graduate school. After spending four years on the extremely beautiful campus of UNC, she perceives the other school's campus to be plain and unattractive. This experience shows how much perception is affected by

contrast effects

Prior to going outside to look at stars in the night sky, Ruben studied a star chart that outlined several constellations. By studying the star chart, he formed an idea of where stars would appear and how they would look placed together in the sky. For example, he formed a picture in his head of Orion focusing on a line-up of stars to create a belt in the midsection. When he stepped outside and looked up, he immediately recognized the Orion constellation. By having an idea already, Ruben's perception was facilitated by

top-down processing

Many cues enable us to perceive depth and distance accurately. What is true of the following cues: Linear perspective, texture gradient, interposition, relative size, and height in plane?

they are all monocular cues that can be seen with just one eye open

Pain messages are transmitted to the brain via two pathways that pass through different areas of the thalamus.

Consider those two pathways and complete the analogy: Fast is to slow as

sharp pain is to dull ache

William James is quoted at the beginning of the article by Chun et al. What do you know about William James from chapter 1 of our textbook?

He took a functionalist approach and emphasized studying the flow of consciousness to understand its function and purpose, not simply its component parts

Taxonomy is a key word in the title of the attention reading. What is a taxonomy?

a system for organizing and classifying related objects or ideas

Attention is finite. At any given time, there are a multitude of external stimuli (sights, sounds, smells, etc.) that we might possibly notice and an equally large number of internal stimuli (memories, feelings, thoughts, beliefs, etc.). Yet we can only pay attention to a tiny fraction of all of these. This basic characteristic of attention is known as

limited capacity

Because of the characteristic described above, we must use the function of in order to pick out a small subset of stimuli to focus on.


After we have chosen something to focus on, attention is used to concentrate cognitive processes on that target. For example, attention facilitates recognition, perception, and encoding the target into memory. This characteristic of attention is labeled


What is the term for the ability to sustain attention and focus over time, such as being able to concentrate on reading the Chun et al. article for an hour or more?


What does it mean to say that attention is not unitary?

Attention is not a single process or mechanism; instead, it comprises multiple processes and mechanisms that work together in complex ways

The main problem that our attention system must deal with is

there is too much information to process at once

Which of the following is NOT an example of a target of internal attention?

While reading this quiz item, you are distracted by noises made by people in another part of the room or outside the room

Stimulus-driven, bottom-up processing is to goal-directed, top-down processing as

external attention is to internal attention

Which of the following demonstrates mutlimodal attention?

When you are touched on the hand, your visual and auditory attention is directed toward the location of that touch

When you enter a situation, such as a classroom or a football stadium, one of the most important issues for visual attention is "where do I look?" This question involves what type of attention?

spatial attention

If we are directed to watch for a particular object when a series of images is flashed in front of us, we are very good at detecting it even when images appear at a rate as fast as 10 images per second. However, if we are directed to also watch for a second object, we will miss that second object if it appears less than a half of a second after the first one. Research shows that paying attention to the first object temporarily inhibits attention to a second target. This complex attention experience is called

the attentional blink

Which of the following would be an example of the long-term memory aid known as refreshing?

Thinking about chapter 1 and reflecting on the details in it, including the photos, drawings and graphs

Selecting something for your attention necessarily means that something else cannot be paid attention to. This aspect of attention is summarized in which statement?

Attention is a zero sum game.

Psychological refractory period is to internal attention as

attentional blink is to external attention

Which of the following does NOT illustrate the effects of the ironic processes of control?

Students given a string with a pendulum on it and told to hold it steady are more unsteady than when they are told to prevent it from moving in a particular direction

The primary attention problem caused by alcohol is

alcohol causes attention to be even more severely limited than it already is

Regarding patterns of sleep: As adults age, they tend to

spend more time in shallower stages of sleep

A progressive decrease in one's response to a drug with repeated and prolonged use is called


The theorist who proposed the wish-fulfillment idea about dreaming was

Sigmund Freud

Research has revealed that most dreams are

about normal, every day concerns and occurrences

The most common sleep disorder is

occasional insomnia

A circadian rhythm involves a biological cycle that fluctuates across

a 24-hour period

After flying long distances, the general rule for readjusting your body's internal clock is that it will take approximately

one day per time zone crossed

The type of sleep that is called slow-wave or deep sleep includes which stages of sleep?

stages 3 and 4

Which of the following does NOT happen during REM sleep for people with typical, non-disordered REM sleep?

increased muscle contractions throughout the body

Which of the following accurately lists the sequence of sleep stages in a typical sleep cycle?

stage 1 --> stage 2 --> stage 3 --> stage 4 --> stage 3 --> stage 2 --> REM

Which of the following statements about REM is TRUE?

Brain activity during REM resembles the pattern and frequency of brain activity that occurs during stage 1 or wakefulness.

Which statement best describes changes in sleep that occur as we repeat the sleep cycle?

Each time the cycle is repeated, we spend more time in REM and less time in the deepest stages of slow-wave sleep

What is the implication of the change in the sleep cycle described in the previous item?

As the night wears on, you will have more dreams and/or longer dreams.

Studies of sleep in different cultures show that

culture has a big impact on sleeping arrangements and practices, such as if and when adults take naps

Imagine that you have had insomnia for several nights and your family doctor gives you a prescription for a sleeping pill. You take a pill each night for about two weeks. Because you've been able to sleep each night and feel caught up on your sleep, you stop taking the pills. What is likely to happen to your sleep?

you are likely to have some difficulty either falling asleep or staying asleep, and you may have even worse insomnia than you did before you started taking the pills

According to the problem-solving view of dreaming, there is considerable continuity between waking and sleeping thought. What does this mean?

the things we dream about are often the same things we think about when we are awake

If you wish to apply what you learned about sleep and dreams to improve your memory of the material you are studying for an upcoming exam, then you should

make sure you are well-rested prior to studying, after studying, make sure you get a good night of sleep with repetitions of full sleep cycles in order to allow for memory consolidation

Which of the following is NOT an effect of hypnosis?

involuntary loss of personal control

According to research on individual ability to experience hypnosis, what percentage of people are unable to experience hypnosis?

A. 50%


What is the psychological term for a splitting of mental processes into two separate, simultaneous streams of awareness?


An EEG is used to monitor

the electrical activity of the brain

What do the EEG recordings of hypnotized people show?

brain activity during normal waking consciousness.

The group of practices that attempt to train attention, heighten awareness, and bring mental processes under voluntary control are known as


The study of classical conditioning and operant conditioning is most closely tied to which psychological perspective?


When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus, the process is called

classical conditioning

A conditioned stimulus is

a previously neutral stimulus that, through conditioning, acquires the capacity to elicit a conditioned response

When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the renewed response typically

is weaker than the previously conditioned response

What type of individual experience is most likely to be shaped by classical conditioning?

involuntary reflexes, such as salivation or blinking

What is the term for the gradual weakening and disappearance of a learned response?


While she was smelling a rose, Veronica was stung on the nose by a bee. The sting was very painful and scary for Veronica. Now Veronica feels anxious whenever she sees a rose. This is an example of what type of learning?

classical conditioning

Before this experience, Veronica had no particular reaction to the sight of a rose. The appropriate term for the rose BEFORE this experience is

neutral stimulus

Gavin recently went deep-sea fishing with some friends. Unfortunately, Gavin was extremely seasick the entire time he was on the boat, and now when he sees boats, he feels queasy. In this situation, the conditioned stimulus is


Robert had a serious car accident while Mozart was playing on his stereo. Now, every time Robert hears a Mozart song, he feels frightened and panicked. What is the unconditioned stimulus?

serious car accident

Robert developed a conditioned response of fear and anxiety to hearing music by Mozart. If he were to have the same response to any classical music, it would be called


Your romantic partner always uses the same shampoo. Soon, the smell of that shampoo makes you feel happy. What would be the correct label for your reaction of feeling happy when you smell the shampoo?

conditioned response

John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Following the experiment, poor little Albert had a startled response at the mere sight of the white rat. In this terribly unethical experiment, what is the unconditioned stimulus?

the loud noise

Reinforcement and punishment are important operant conditioning concepts. What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?

Negative reinforcement increases behavior and punishment decreases behavior.

Nolan has learned to drink a cup of coffee whenever he gets a tension headache because the pain of the headache goes away after he drinks coffee. For Nolan's behavior of drinking coffee, this is an example of

escape learning

The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called


Albert Bandura conducted experiments using Bobo dolls, role models, and children. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the saying "Do as I say, not as I do" is useless because

we are very likely to imitate what we see other people do, especially if their behavior was reinforced and/or not punished

Gambling behavior is reinforced according to a schedule of reinforcement while use of vending machines is reinforced according to a schedule of reinforcement.

variable; fixed

Which schedule of reinforcement tends to generate steady response rates as well as resistance to extinction?


Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?

Enrique's roommates make fun of him for not drinking. At a recent party, Enrique got a red cup and pretended to drink, and his roommates stopped teasing him. Now Enrique holds a red cup and pretends to drink at most parties.

Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?

The dentist has been lecturing Anita for years about flossing. At every appointment, the dentist criticizes Anita for not flossing. Anita begins flossing, and then the dentist stops the lecturing and criticism. Now Anita flosses every day.

In an attempt to get us to buy their products, advertisers frequently pair their products with stimuli that seem likely to elicit positive emotional responses. For example, they pair a laundry detergent with a cute, cuddly bear. Or, they pair a credit card with a warm, loving family scene. What type of conditioning are these advertisers using to get you to learn positive emotional responses to their products?


The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is

encoding then storage then retrieval

Taryn was given a list of words as part of a memory test and that included the words "dog, pail, and hate." Later, she recalled these words as: "puppy, bucket, and loathe." Taryn's errors in recall suggest that she encoded the original word list


The current research evidence shows that most memories are consolidated in the and stored in the .

hippocampus; cerebral cortex

If you suffer from an inability to recall old memories as a result of brain trauma, you have a case of

retrograde amnesia

Which type of memory is made up of temporally dated recollections of personal experiences?


The misinformation effect and source monitoring error help to explain

how people can believe they have memories of events that never actually happened

In studying the process of retrieving information from long-term memory, research finds that

getting information from long-term memory involves getting a few bits and pieces of information, filling in the missing information, and reconstructing the past

Imagine that you are trying to memorize a list of words in order. According to the serial-position effect, which words will you remember BEST?

the words at the beginning of the list and the words at the end of the list

Research on levels of processing suggests that students should spend less time on rote repetition and spend more time

working on a genuine understanding of the concepts in order to apply them and recognize examples of them

In studying the process of retrieving information from long-term memory, research finds that

getting information from long-term memory involves getting a few bits and pieces of information, filling in the missing information, and reconstructing the past

Amelia spent the afternoon talking with a friend. Then, later that same day, she got a phone call from her mother, and they talked for about an hour. The next day Amelia's sister calls to find out what she and her mother talked about. However, Amelia cannot remember everything from the conversation with her mother because she keeps recalling things from her earlier conversation with her friend. This is an example of

proactive interference

In the systems model of emotion, the essential COGNITIVE process that occurs following an activating event or object is labeled


What does the "broaden" aspect of the Broaden-and-Build Theory refer to?

Positive emotions cause us to have a wide array of thought-action tendencies

According to the Broaden-and-Build Theory, one important characteristic that positive emotions might help us to build is psychological resilience. What is psychological resilience?

the ability to bounce back from a stressful experience relatively quickly

Research on positive emotion shows that positive emotion leads to broadened thinking which triggers more positive emotion. What is the term used in the Broaden-and-Build Theory to describe this pattern of positive emotions and thoughts building upon one another?

upward spiral

Research shows that positive emotions can undo lingering negative emotions. What specifically does the term "undo" refer to in this research?

decrease physiological arousal

A drive is an internal state of

tension that is motivating

An external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior is referred to as

an incentive

Alfred Kinsey is famous for the work he did on sexuality in the 1950's and 1960's. After collecting information from many individuals, he proposed that homosexuality and heterosexuality are

end points on a continuum of sexual orientation

Which of the following shows the correct ordering of factors from most predictive to least predictive of happiness?

1st: Love and marriage
2nd: Work
3rd: Health
4th: Intelligence

When given a choice among tasks, individuals with a high need for achievement will choose which type of task?

a moderately difficult task

Drive is to incentive as

internal is to external

According to this theory of motivation, the three fundamental needs that must be met for you to achieve the highest level of self-motivation are autonomy, competence, and relatedness.

Self-determination theory

A manager says that she plans to use positive reinforcement to motivate her employees. She says she is going to set up a rewards program in which employees who meet performance goals are given prizes at the end of each month, such as gift cards, extra time off, and cash bonuses. This manager is going to be most successful in motivating her employees if the work they do involves

manual tasks that require little thought

In the video "The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us," which need is described as "the urge to get better at stuff?"


When does a larger reward lead to poorer performance?

when the task involves cognitive skill, such as conceptual, creative thinking

What's the best use of money as a motivator?

Pay people enough to get the issue of money off the table and so people are thinking about their work, not about money

This company's success is an example of the benefits of using which factor to improve performance and satisfaction among their software developers?


The Atkinson-Shiffrin model shows the connections among memory processes and memory stores. We discussed this model in class and noted that there are some errors in the textbook's drawing of this model of memory.

The correct location for the process of storage is

inside long-term memory

Broaden-and-Build Theory is an important set of principles regarding positive emotion. In this framework, what does the term broaden refer to?

positive emotions cause a greater number of thought-action tendencies to come to mind

After realizing how much time he wasted on facebook, Pat deactivated his facebook account. For the next couple days, he felt more and more lonely, anxious and bored until he gave up on deactivating his facebook account.

To analyze this as an example of operant conditioning, focus on deactivating as the response. The appropriate label for the pattern of change in the behavior of deactivating is


Which theme from chapter 1 is most relevant to understanding what causes something to develop and what causes individual differences in development?

Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior

Every developmental outcome is the result of the interaction of internal and external factors. One important internal factor is agency. Which of the following illustrates the meaning of agency?

In order to develop a better understanding of people, Malea chooses to enroll in PSYC 101 and attends all of the lectures.

A life course perspective requires taking into account the unique developmental experiences of ________ which is a group of people who live in a particular historical time and place. For example, the sexual development of women who were born in the 1930s is very different from the sexual development of women who were born in the 1990s.

a cohort

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