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62 terms

Immunology H2

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infectious diseases
diseases that can be transmitted and are caused by a pathogen
non-infectious diseases
diseases that cannot be transmitted and are caused by genetics, environment or diet
pathogen
any harmful microorganism like a bacteria or virus
airborne
passing a pathogen in the air through coughing or sneezing
direct contact
passing a pathogen by touching an infected person (like kissing)
indirect contact
passing a pathogen by touching an object (like sharing a glass of water)
vector
passing a pathogen by insect (mosquito/flea) that bites infected person and then bites a new person
bacteria
single celled microorganism that can reproduce by binary fission or conjugation
pili
small hairs of bacteria used for attachment and reproduction
flagella
long hairs of bacteria used for movement
coccus
spherical shaped bacteria
bacillus
rod shaped bacteria
spirilium
spiral shaped bacteria
binary fission
bacterial method of reproduction that produces two identical cells
conjugation
bacterial method of reproduction that produces genetically different cells
cell membrane
membrane of bacteria cell that allows food in/wastes out
cell wall
outside of bacteria cell that is for protection
protein coat
packaging around a virus' DNA
antigen
protein on the outside of a virus used for attaching and infecting the host cell
lytic cycle
virus reproduction method that results in host cell bursting open to release 100's of new viruses
lysogenic cycle
virus reproduction method that results in virus DNA merging into host cell's DNA
attachment
viral reproduction stage in which virus antigen attaches to host cell
entry
viral reproduction stage in which virus DNA is injected into host cell and host cell DNA is disabled
reproduction
viral reproduction stage in which virus takes over host DNA to manufacture and assemble new virus particles
lysis
viral reproduction stage in which the host cell bursts open to release new viruses
integration
virus reproduction stage in which virus DNA merges with host cell's DNA
cell reproduction
virus reproduction stage in which host cells reproduce and copy viral DNA along with their own DNA. Host feels no symptoms
Prokaryote
all cells that have DNA floating loose in the cytoplasm (no nucleus); example bacteria
Eukaryote
all cells that have their DNA contained inside a nucleus membrane; example animal and plant cells
virus
nonliving particle of DNA wrapped in a protein coat that requires a host cell in order to reproduce
3 reasons viruses aren't alive
no metabolism (growth/eat/etc), no repro w/o host, not cellular
innate immune response
non-specific immune response that responds immediately to any pathogen
adaptive immune response
specific immune system that responds to each pathogen by producing specific antibodies and results in lasting immunity
first line of defense
barriers against pathogens
types of first lines of defense
skin, mucus & cilia, antiseptic body fluids
second line of defense
generic responses to pathogens after they have entered the body
types of second lines of defense
macrophage, natural killer T-cells, inflammation, fever
macrophage/phagocyte
WBC that circulate through the body and ingest any invading cell (bacteria, protozoa or fungi)
phagocytosis
when a macrophage surrounds and digests a pathogen
antiseptic body fluids
sweat, saliva, tears, that have enzymes that break down pathogens
mucus
sticky fluid in your nose and respiratory system that traps pathogens
cilia
small hairs in your respiratory system that push out mucus to be swallowed into the stomach or coughed out
skin
main barrier to pathogens that covers your body
inflammation
expansion of capillaries in response to histamines that draws in white blood cells
histamines
chemicals sent out by injured cells that result in inflammation
fever
the hypothalmus region of the brain increases body temperature to kill pathogens
natural killer T-cells
cells that circulate through the body and poke holes in any viral infected host cell or cancerous host cell
humoral immune response
part of your adaptive immune response that includes B cells producing antibodies
cell mediated immune response
part of your adaptive immune response that includes T cells becoming cytotoxic
B cell
WBC that produces antibodies as part of your adaptive immune response
Memory B cell
WBC that is stored and capable of antibody production in the event of a reinfection with the same pathogen
Helper T cell
part of the adaptive immune response that receives a antigen message from macrophage and the initiates B cell division
Antibody
protein created by the B cell that has is specifically shaped to cap an antigen on a single type of pathogen
Cytotoxic T cell
cell that is capable of destroying host cells infected by viruses during the cell mediated response
Memory T cell
Stored cell with memory of antigen that can become cytotoxic if a specific virus is reintroduced
Immunity
acquired, or induced resistance to infection by a specific pathogen
Active immunity
acquired immunity to a specific pathogen as a result of exposure to the antigen through vaccine or infection
Passive immunity
temporary resistance to infection by a specific pathogen due to injection or transfer of antibodies against that pathogen
Epidemic
sudden increase of infected person in a localized area
Pandemic
sudden increase of infected persons in a large area even world-wide
Endemic
consistent low grade level of infection in a population
Vaccine
damaged or destroyed pathogen that still contains the antigen and is given to induce an immune response