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PET3322L Exam 3: The Urinary & Digestive Systems
Terms in this set (178)
The main function of the urinary system is
the filtering of blood (via 3 processes: filtration, reabsorption, & secretion)
Regulatory functions of the urinary system:
regulation of BP (RAA system & blood volume), conc. of blood solutes, & arterial blood pH
Functions of the Urinary System
-filtering of blood (filtration, reabsorption, & secretion)
-regulation of BP (RAA system/blood volume)
-regulates conc. of blood solutes
-regulation of arterial blood pH
How does the urinary system function in the regulation of blood pressure?
activates RAA (renin-angiotensinogen-angiotensin II) system & regulates blood volume
Blood solutes incl.
Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, HPO4-2, Mg2+
How does the urinary system function in regulating arterial blood pH?
by secreting H+
Which is the major excretory organ(s) of the urinary system/body?
kidneys; primary function is to rid the body of waste products
What is the primary function of the kidneys (body's main excretory organs)?
to rid the body of waste products
What other organs besides the kidneys can rid the body of waste?
the skin, liver, & lungs; however if the kidneys fail the other organs cannot adequately compensate
Components of the urinary system:
(also hepatic veins, esophagus, inferior vena cava, adrenal glands, & aorta)
2 blood vessels that lead off from the abdominal aorta to supply the kidneys with blood (carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the kidneys; C in the picture)
the veins that drain the kidneys of oxygen-depleted blood; connect the kidneys to the inferior vena cava to carry blood filtered by the kidney back to the heart (D in the picture)
the recessed central fissure of the kidney where its blood & lymphatic vessels, nerves, & ureter pass; entrance to the renal sinus
the ducts by which urine pass from the kidneys to the bladder/cloaca; one connecting each kidney to the urinary bladder
a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of fluids from the body
a hollow, muscular organ that collects urine from the kidneys before disposal by urinartion; urine enters the bladder via the ureters & exits via the urethra
the veins that drain de-oxygenated blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava
2 major regions within the kidney:
cone-shaped tissues within the medulla of each kidney; 10-18 pyramids make up the renal medulla of each kidney; pyramids consist mainly of tubules that transport urine from the cortical (outer) part of the kidney where the urine is produced to the calyces (cup-shaped cavities in which urine collects before it passes through the ureter to the bladder)
Where are the renal pyramids found within each kidney?
in the renal medulla (inner region)
chambers of the kidney through which urine passes after passing through the pyramids in the renal medulla; minor calyces surround the apex of the renal pyramids & 2-3 minor cancels converge to form a major calyx through which urine passes before continuing through the renal pelvis into the ureter
term used to describe the apex of a renal pyramid through which urine formed in the kidney passes into the minor calyx
chambers in the kidney that surround the apex of renal pyramids
chamber in the kidney formed by convergence of 2-3 minor calyces, through which urine passes before continuing through the renal pelvis into the ureter
Major calyces in the kidneys converge to form
the renal PELVIS
enlarged chamber in each kidney which is formed by convergence of major calyces; where the urine ends up & then goes out through the ureter to the urinary bladder
connects kidney to urinary bladder
a medullary extension of the renal cortex b/w the renal pyramids that allows the cortex to be better anchored; consists of lines of blood vessels & urinary tubes & fibrous material
3 processes involved in the production of urine in the kidneys:
2) Tubular Reabsorption
3) Tubular Secretion
the functional unit of the kidney, which consists of
1) renal corpuscle (Glomerulus & Bowman's capsule)
2) proximal convoluted tubule
3) Loop of Henle
4) Distal convoluted tubule
-regulates conc. of water & soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed & excreting the rest as urine
Urine flows from the nephron (kidney functional unit) to the
The Renal Corpuscle component of the Nephron is made up of the1
Glomerulus & Bowman's Capsule
network of capillaries at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney which serves as the first stage in the filtering process of the blood carried out by the nephron in its formation of urine; surrounded by the Bowman's capsule, together with which it makes up the Renal corpuscle
a cup-like sack at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine; encloses the glomerulus
Proximal convoluted tubule
the first part of the tubular system of a nephron after the Bowman's capsule which RETURNS FILTERED SUBSTANCE TO THE BLOOD; followed by distal convoluted tubule; proximal to the renal corpuscle (glomerulus within bowman's capsule)
Loop of Henle (nephron loop)
the portion of a nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule whose main function is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of ht kidney by CONSERVING WATER & SOLUTES
Distal convoluted tubule
the portion of a kidney nephron between the loop of Henle & the collecting duct system which RIDS THE BLOOD OF ADDITIONAL WASTE; distal to renal corpuscle
Describe the flow of urine as it is produced by nephrons in the kidneys:
Blood from renal arteries is filtered by capillaries in the glomerulus of the renal corpuscle in the first part of the nephron==>proximal convoluted tubule==>loop of Henle==>distal convoluted tubule==>collecting ducts==>renal papilla==>minor calyx==>major calyx==>renal pelvis==>ureter==>urinary bladder==>urethra==>urine exits body
Arterial supply of the kidneys is through
1) Renal arteries
2) Segmental arteries
3) Interlobar arteries
4) Arcuate arteries
5) Interlobular arteries
branches of the renal arteries
vessels of the renal circulation which supply the renal lobes (containing a renal pyramid & the cortex above it)
vessels of the renal circulation that are located at the border of the renal cortex & the renal medulla
renal blood vessels given off at right angles from the side of the arcuate arteries looking toward the renal cortex
The arteries of the kidneys are the part of the circulation involved with .........
The parts of the circulation (w/i arterial network of the kidneys) involved with urine formation incl.:
-Afferent arterioles (supply blood to glomerulus)
-Efferent arterioles (exit renal corpuscle)
a group of blood vessels that branch from the renal artery to SUPPLY BLOOD TO THE GLOMERULUS in the kidney (first component of nephron which filters blood to produce urine); B in the picture
blood vessels that form from a convergence of the capillaries of the glomerulus within which filtered blood EXITS THE RENAL CORPUSCLE; A in the picture
tiny blood vessels that travel alongside nephrons (proximal/distal tubules & loop of hence) to allow for reabsorption & secretion b/w the blood & the inner lumen of the nephron; C in the picture
the "straight arterioles of the kidney"; a series of straight capillaries in the renal medulla that lie parallel to the loop of Henle (network of peritubular capillaries that surround the loop of Henle)
Descending limb of loop of Henle
the portion of the renal tubule constituting the first part of the loop of Henle, which descends from the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron
Ascending limb of the loop of Henle
the segment of the loop of Henle after the sharp bend of the loop; part of the renal tubule that is divided into a thin & thick ascending limb which carries blood back up to the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron
The veins of the kidney responsible for venous drainage to carry blood back to the heart incl.
veins parallel to the interlobular arteries that drain the peritubular capillary plexus & empty into the arcuate veins of the kidney
vessels of the renal circulation located at the border of the renal cortex & renal medulla that drain into the interlobular veins of the kidney (green arrows in picture)
veins of the renal circulation which drain the renal lobes (consisting of a renal pyramid & the renal cortex above it) to the renal vein
Describe the flow of blood through the kidneys, starting with its entrance through the renal artery & ending with its exit through the renal vein:
1) Renal artery
2) Segmental artery
3) Interlobar artery
4) Arcuate artery
5) Interlobular artery
6) Afferent arteriole
8) Efferent arteriole
9) Peritubular capillaries
10) Vasa recta
11) Interlobular vein
12) Arcuate vein
13) Interlobar vein
14) Renal vein
the movement of fluid (water+solutes) derived from the blood across a membrane to the renal tubule that occurs in the renal corpuscle; the fluid is known as FILTRATE & contains solutes
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
the amount of filtrate (filtered fluid within nephron) produced by the kidney per minute
What is the normal GFR (glomerular filtration rate)?
The GFR (glomerular filtration rate) is often determined by what 2 factors?
1) filtration pressure
2) renal blood flow
What is the major function of the kidneys?
to FILTER THE BLOOD & in the process produce urine
Filtration is a ........... process
Describe the urine production process
-blood flows from the affecting arteriole into the glomerulus & leaves through the efferent arteriole
-fluid from the blood enters the Bowman's capsule by passing through capillary walls & passes into the proximal convoluted tubule
-fluid is filtered by the podocyte (visceral layer of bowman capsule which surrounds fenestrated glomerular capillaries & had filtration slits): fluid passes from glomerular capillary through the filtration membrane into the Bowman's capsule
consists of cells from the wall of the afferent arteriole & the distal convoluted tubule & senses blood osmolality; secretes renin when osmolality is low
The visceral layer of the Bowman's capsule is called the
What does the juxtaglonerular apparatus secrete when it detects low blood osmolality?
Fenestrated therefore more permeable than normal capillaries, allows for water & small molecules to pass, & some hormones, but usually not proteins (only 0.03% proteins)
Glomerular capillaries are permeable to what types of substances?
All water & small molecules, some hormones, & only 0.03% of proteins
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is composed of
Macula densa (modified epithelial layer of the distal convoluted tubule if he same nephron) & juxtaglomerular cells that surround the afferent arteriole & secrete renin in response to low blood osmolality)
Second process that occurs during urine production/filtration of blood in the kidneys which occurs as filtrate (fluid) flows through the lumens of the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, & collecting ducts
What happens during the tubular reabsorption phase of blood filtration?
As filtrate passes through the lumens of the proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule, & collecting ducts, substances from the filtrate fluid are transported to the interstitial fluid & are reabsorbed into peritubular capillaries
What components of the filtrate are reabsorbed during blood filtration?
Most of filtrate is reabsorbed:
-99% of water
-99% of Na+
-100% of glucose
Is reabsorbed by the peritubular capillaries during tubular reabsorption to be carried to interlobular veins & back to the heart
Tubular reabsorption is a ......... process in which ........
SPECIFIC (recall that filtration is nonspecific); in which the nephron returns water & some filtered substances back into the blood
During the tubular reabsorption phase of blood filtration/urine production, the proximal convoluted tubule is where
-majority of Na+ is reabsorbed (67%), which causes other ions such as Cl-, Ca2+, Mg+, K+, & water to follow
-nearly all glucose, bicarbonate, phosphate, & amino acids are reabsorbed, &
-where filtrate volume is reduced by 65%
The majority of Na+ (....%) is reabsorbed in the ........ during tubular reabsorption
67% in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron (caused other ions & water to follow & be reabsorbed as well)
Filtrate volume is reduced by ...% in the proximal convoluted tubule during tubular reabsorption
Nearly all of which substances in the filtrate are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule during tubular reabsorption?
During tubular reabsorption, solutes and water move into the .......:.. and then into the .........
Interstitial fluid (from proximal convoluted tubule)==>peritubular capillaries
During tubular reabsorption, solutes move from the filtrate into the tubule cell via ..... & water follows by ......
Describe how the concentration of the filtrate changes as it passes through the DESCENDING thin segment of the loop of Henle
DESCENDING thin segment is highly permeable to water therefore here the filtrate becomes increasingly concentrated within the tubule as water diffuses out of the tubule & into the interstitial fluid & to the vasa recta
Describe how the concentration of the filtrate changes as it passes through the ASCENDING thick segment of the loop of Henle
ASCENDING thick segment is NOT permeable to water therefore water does not move out of the tubule into the interstitial fluid, only solutes do, causing to filtrate to become increasingly dilute
What percent of Na+ is reabsorbed in the Loop of Henle?
25% (67% has already been reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule)
By how much is the filtrate reduced in the loop of Henle during tubular reabsorption?
15% (was reduced 65% in the proximal convoluted tubule)
During tubular reabsorption, due to differences in the permeability of the ASCENDING & DESCENDING segments of the loop of Henle, the filtrate becomes increasingly concentrated as it passes through the ........ segment & conversely becomes increasingly dilute as it passes through the ........ segment
Defending thin segment; ASCENDING thick segment
During tubular reabsorption, what % of Na+ is reabsorbed in the distal convoluted tubule?
What other substances (besides Na+) are reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries as the filtrate passes through the DISTAL convoluted tubule?
Aldosterone & ADH, K+ (if low dietary intake), & Ca2+ (via PTH action which also inhibits phosphate)
Describe the action of PTH as filtrate passes through the distal convoluted tubule
PTH acts to reabsorbed Ca2+ into the peritubular capillaries & inhibits phosphate
K+ reabsorption occurs with Na+ reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule if
There is a low dietary intake
What % of Na+ reabsorption occurs in the collecting ducts of the nephron (following the distal convoluted tubule)?
Water movement through the collecting ducts during tubular reabsorption is regulated by
Hormones (Aldosterone & ADH)
During the tubular secretion (final) phase of blood filtration/urine formation, what are the principle substances that are secreted from the peritubular capillaries into the tubule of the nephron & hence into the urine?
-H+ (controls pH)
-K+ (controls membrane potentials)
What is the purpose of secreting H+ into the urine during tubular secretion?
To regulate blood pH
Major intercellular ion that is secreted into the urine during tubular secretion phase of urine production
If secretion of K+ into the urine during tubular secretion is impaired, .......
It will cause disruption of membrane potentials
One of the most studied supplements which has been shown to be highly effective for increasing strength & muscle mass; found in meat products
Creatine monohydrate is found naturally in meat products but can also be made endogenously from
Methionine, glycine, & arginine (amino acids)
T/F: creatine monohydrate has been shown to cause cramping
T/F: creatine monohydrate supplement had been shown to cause renal failure in healthy adults
FALSE; empirical data do not support the conclusion that "high" protein diets to cause renal dysfunction
Urine concentration is measured in what units?
Osmoles (mOsm), a measure of the amount of solute in a solution
Urine concentration (of solutes) is controlled by
-RAA (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone) system
-ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
-ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
What hormones are responsible for regulating urine concentration?
RAA system (Reno in, angiotensin, aldosterone), ADH, & ANP
The RAA system is activated by ........ to .........
Low sodium concentration (detected by juxtaglomerular apparatus); to inc. sodium reabsorption by the peritubular capillaries
Activation of the RAA system by low sodium conc. (Low blood osmolality) causes
An inc in sodium reabsorption all in the PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE
Give an overview of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
1) low blood sodium levels detected by juxtaglomerular apparatus
2) juxtaglomerular cells in the JA secrete renin enzyme which breaks down angiotensinogen hormone secreted by the liver into angiotensin I
3) ACE (produced in respiratory system) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II which travels to the adrenal cortex
4) angiotensin II inc permeability of the adrenal cortex to K+ causing the release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex
5) aldosterone enters cells of the DISTAL convoluted tubule & binds to nuclear receptors to inc synthesis of transport proteins of the apical & basal membranes (of the DISTAL convoluted tubule)
6) newly synthesized transport proteins inc rate at which Na+ are absorbed & K+ & H+ are secreted (Cl- move with Na+ bc attracted to its positive charge)
7) ultimate result is an inc in Na+ reabsorption from the tubular fluid back into the blood
In the RAA system, Aldosterone hormone is secreted into the
DISTAL convoluted tubule & collecting ducts
How does ADH function in regulating urine concentration?
1) ADH moves from the peritubular capillaries & binds to ADH receptors in the plasma membranes of the distal convoluted tubule cells & the collecting duct cells
2) when ADH binds to its receptor a G protein mechanism is activated which activates adenylate Cyclase
3) Adenylate cyclase inc the rate of cAMP synthesis which promotes the insertion of aquaporin-2 containing cytoplasmic vessels into the apical membranes of the DCT thereby inc their permeability to water; water then moves by osmosis out of the DCT & collecting ducts into the tubule cells through the aquaporin-2 water channels
4) water exits the tubule cells & enters the interstitial fluid through aquaporin-3 & -4 water channels in the basal membranes
Main point of ADH mechanism of regulating blood/urine conc:
ADH inserts aquaporins to reabsorb water from the distal convoluted tubule & collecting ducts back into the peritubular capillaries (inc solute conc in tubules)
What is the result of the presence of ADH in the DCT & collecting ducts during tubular secretion?
The collecting duct is more permeable to water therefore water is reabsorbed into the interstitial fluid resulting in a small volume of concentrated urine
What is the result of an absence of ADH in the DCT & collecting ducts?
Collecting duct is impermeable to water therefore water remains in the collecting duct resulting in a large volume of dilute urine output
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Hormone produced by the right atrium of the heart when blood volume inc which acts in opposition to the RAA system & ADH (inhibits Na+ reabsorption, inhibits ADH secretion & dec blood volume)
ANP production in the right atrium of the heart is stimulated by
Inc blood volume
Result of ANP action
Opposite of RAA system/ADH:
-inhibits Na+ reabsorption
-inhibits ADH reabsorption
-dec blood volume
Muscular coat of the urinary bladder which contracts to facilitate urinary emptying of bladder during urination
Internal urethral sphincter
Muscle at the junction of the urethra & urinary bladder which controls retention or release of urine from the bladder
External urethral sphincter
Functions to inhibit release of urine from the bladder/urethra
Micturition (urination) reflex:
1) bladder filling: detrusor muscle surrounding urinary bladder is relaxed & both internal & external sphincters are contracted to inhibit urine output
2) emptying of bladder: detrusor muscle contracts & internal & external sphincters relax to allow urine to flow out of & thereby empty the bladder
Manipulation of the INTERNAL urinary sphincter is ...... while manipulation of the EXTERNAL urinary sphincter is .........
The Digestive System can be broken down into the
1) GI Tract (stomach & intestines)
2) Accessory organs (glands that secrete fluid into GI tract)
The GI Tract consists of
The stomach & intesines
Accessory organs of the digestive system
Glands that secrete fluid into the GI tract
Main goals of the Digestive System
-ingestion of food (oral cavity/esophagus)
-digestion (stomach/small intestine)
-absorption (small intestine)
-elimination (large intestine)
Where does digestion begin?
Oral cavity: salivary glands secrete saliva consisting of mucus, lubricant, salivary amylase, & lingual lipase
3 pairs of Salivary glands:
1) parotid gland
2) sublingual gland
3) submandibular gland
Enzymes in saliva incl
Lingual lipase & salivary amylase, begin digestion process in the oral cavity
Saliva is composed of
Enzymes (salivary amylase & lingual lipase)
Openings/sphincters of the stomach incl
Cardiac part (from esophagus into stomach)
Pyloric part (from stomach to duodenum)
The cardiac part opens from the ...... to the ......
The pyloric part opens from the ....... to the .......
Parts of the dtomach
Part of the stomach between the fundus (above) & pyloric Antrum (below) which has poorly defined boundaries
Cardiac part of stomach
Where the contents of the esophagus empty into the stomach; incl the lower esophageal sphincter & gastroesophageal opening (below sphincter)
The pyloric part of the stomach incl
1) pyloric canal
2) pyloric antrum
Part of the stomach connecting the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine, consisting of the pyloric canal & the pyloric antrum (also pyloric orifice & sphincter)
The opening to the duodenum which ends at the pyloric orifice marking the junction of the stomach & the duodenum
The opening to the body of the stomach
The band of smooth muscle at the junction of the pylorous of the stomach & the duodenum of the small intestine which controls the flow of partially digested food from stomach to small intestine
A series of ridges formed by folds in the internal gastric wall (in the stomach)
The Muscularis component of the stomach consists of 3 layers (superficial to deep):
1) longitudinal muscle layer
2) circular muscle layer
3) oblique muscle layer
Substances secreted by the stomach during digestion incl.
-Pepsin (pepsinogen enzyme breaks down proteins/peptides)
What type of cells of the stomach secrete HCl & intrinsic factor?
What type of cells of the stomach secrete peosinogen?
What type of stomach cells secrete mucus?
Mucous neck cells
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease; chronic Digestive disease affecting the lower esophageal sphincter in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus (food pipe) & irritates the internal lining
Cul-de-sac of the stomach that lies above the level of the cardiac orifice (where the esophagus joins the stomach) which contains a gas bubble
the primary area of the digestive system for digestion & absorption of nutrients & water
The small intestine is the primary area of the digestive system for
digestion & absorption of nutrients & water
Divisions of the small intestine incl.
first part of small intestine which receives secretions from the pancreas & liver
Duodenum receives secretions from the ........ & ......... (accessory digestive organs)
pancreas & liver (bile)
second part of the small intestine in humans which is b/w the duodenum & the ileum
third & final part of the small intestine in which most bile reabsorption occurs; also contains ileocecal sphincter
-b/w jejunum of small intestine & cecum of large intestine
Where does most bile reabsorption occur in the small intestine?
in the ileum
fold of the peritoneum that attaches the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, spleen, & other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen (yellow in pic)
blind-ended tube connected to the cecum
produces bile (which is stored & concentrated in the gallbladder) & stores glycogen
Bile is released from the gallbladder into the duodenum via the
common bile duct
digestive substance produced by the liver & stored in the gallbladder which is secreted into the duodenum via the common bile duct to help to emulsify fat & dilute stomach acid
primary storage & conc. site for bile produced by the liver
Common bile duct (CBD)
duct in the GI tract of organisms formed by the convergence of the common hepatic duct (from liver) & cystic duct (from gallbladder) that drains bile from the liver & gallbladder into the duodenum to aid in digestion
Major duodenal papilla
opening of the pancreatic duct & common bile duct into the duodenum (below minor duodenal papilla)
Minor duodenal papilla
opening of the accessory pancreatic duct into the duodenum (above major duodenal papilla)
abdominal organ (Accessory organ of digestive system) involved in the production & removal of blood cells (blood filtration) & forms part of immune system
The pancreas has both .......... & ............. functions
exocrine & endocrine
Endocrine functions of the pancreas are carried out by
pancreatic islets that contain alpha cells (secrete glucagon) & beta cells (secrete insulin)
Exocrine functions of the pancreas are carried out by
Acinar cells that secrete pancreatic juices containing lots of enzymes & bicarbonate
Pancreatic juices secreted by acinar cells of the pancreas contain
-lots of enzymes
Function of bicarbonate (in pancreatic juices) in small intestine
neutralizes stomach acid in chyme that enters the SI from stomach b/c SI has poor mucous membrane
The large intestine consists of
-Colon (ascending, transverse, descending, & sigmoid))
-Anal Canal (incl. internal & external anal sphincters)
The large intestine is where the absorption of ......... occurs
water, Na+, & bicarbonate
The large intestine produces
Feces (water & undigested food)
Feces is made in the large intestine from
water & undigested food
Defecation of feces in the large intestine is controlled .............
Internal (involuntary) anal sphincter & External (voluntary) anal sphincter
food in the stomach increases large intestine motility to clear the large intestine for more food
pressure on the rectum inc. the urge to defecate & when appropriate, the internal & external anal sphincters relax (defecation occurs)
What part of the digestive system produces Vitamin K?
the large intestine
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