Terms in this set (143)
What is Personality?
-relatively enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another
What does personality lead people to do?
-act in a consistent and predictable manner across time and across situations
Who was the leading psychologist attributed to psychoanalytic theory?
Describe Sigmund Freud
-he was trained as a physician
-he specialized in nervous disorders
-he noted that some patients' disorders have no physical cause
he practiced in an upscale neighborhood in Vienna, Austria
What were two of Freud's psychoanalytic techniques?
1) Free Association
2) Dream Analysis
What is free association?
-encourage the patient to speak whatever comes to mind
What happens after the patient speaks whatever comes to mind?
-the therapist then interprets any potential unconscious wishes
What does the therapist interpret?
-dreams, hesitations, and slips of the tounge
What did Freud believe about Dream analysis?
-that dreams serve as wish fulfillment
Where do many powerful mental processes operate in?
-the unconscious without our awareness
What is the unconscious?
-a reservoir of thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, that are hidden from awareness because they feel unacceptable
Why are some thoughts, feelings, wishes, and memories hidden from awareness?
-because they feel unacceptable
How does personality develop?
-in a dynamic interplay between conscious and unconscious processes, including various motives and inner conflicts
What is the ego?
-mostly conscious, makes peace between the Id and the super ego
-is the rational self
-restrains the Id to maintain safety of the individual and help become member of society
-operates on the "reality principle"
What makes peace between the id and the super ego?
What is the rational self?
What restrains the Id to maintain safety of the individual and help us become a member of society?
What operates on the reality principle?
What is the superego?
-is the conscience
-based on society's rules and constraints
-operates on the morality principle
What is the conscience?
What is based solely on society's rules and constraints?
What operates on the "morality principle"?
What is the Id?
-the unconscious energy
-based on biological drives
-unorganized, inborn part of personality whose purpose is to immediately resolve tensions related to hunger, sex, aggression, etc.
-operates on the pleasure principle
What is based on biological drives?
What is the unorganized, inborn part of personality whose purpose it is to immediately resolve tensions related to hunger, sex, aggression, etc.?
What operates on the pleasure principle?
What is a Freudian Slip?
-a verbal or memory mistake that is believed to be linked to the unconscious mind. These slips supposedly reveal the real secret thoughts and feelings that people hold
What is the theory around psychosexual stages?
-each level brings a conflict between pleasure and reality and that a resolution of this conflict determines personality
What does a resolution between the conflict of pleasure and reality determine?
What happens is needs are under-gratified or over-gratified?
-people can become fixated at the stage
-especially the first three
What does each stage focus on?
-an erogenous zone
What are the psychosexual stages?
When is the oral stage?
0 to 18 months
Explain the oral stage?
-pleasure centers on the mouth--sucking, biting, chewing
When is the anal stage?
-18 to 36 months
Explain the Anal stage
-pleasure focuses on the bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
When is the Phallic stage?
-3 to 6 years
Explain the phallic stage?
-pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
When in the latency stage?
6 years to puberty
Explain the latency stage?
-a ohase of dormant sexual feelings
When is the genital stage?
Explain the genital stage?
-maturation of sexual interests
When is the time period of the oral stage?
-birth to 18 months
What is the erogenous zone during the oral stage?
How is gratification come during the oral stage?
-through sucking and swallowing
When does conflict come during the oral stage?
-conflict comes through weaning
What is an oral receptive personality?
-reduces tension through oral activity
-eating, drinking, smoking, biting nails
-passive and needy; sensitive to rejection
What is an oral aggressive personality?
-hostile and verbally abusive to others
-using "mouth-based" aggression
When is the anal stage?
1/12 to 3 years of age
What is the erogenous zone during the anal phase?
When does conflict occur during the anal stage?
-conflict surrounds toilet training
When may fixation be caused during the anal stage?
-may be caused by too much punishment during toilet training
What is anal retentive personality?
-stingy, compulsive, orderliness, stubborn, perfectionist
What is anal expulsive personality?
-lack of self control, messy, careless
When is the phallic stage?
-3 to 6 years
What is the erogenous zone during the phallic stage?
-self-stimulation of the genitals produces pleasure
What happens near then end of the phallic stage?
-boys experience the oedipus complex
-girls experience the electra complex
-children learn to identify with the same gender parent by acting as much like that parent as possible
-child is sexually attracted to the other sex parent and wishes to replace the same sex parent
What are the types of phallic fixation?
What is castration anxiety?
-son believes his father knows about his desire for his mother
-fears father will castrate him
-represses his desires and defensively identifies with his father
What is penis envy?
-daughter is initially attached to her mother, but then shifts her attachment when she realizes her mother lacks a penis
-desires her father whom she sees as a means to obtain a penis substitute (a child)
-represses her desire for her father and incorporates the values of her mother and accepts her inherent 'inferiority' in society
When is the latency time period?
-6 to 13 years
What happens during the latency period?
-little girl and boys try to socialize only with members of their own gender
-they continue the process of sexual repression that began in the previous stage (for those who made it successfully through the oedipus and electra complex
Why, during the latency period, do little girls and boys try to socialize only with members of their own gender?
-to help minimize the awareness of "sexuality"
When is the genital stage?
-from adolescence onwards
What happens during the genital stage?
-the onset of physical sexual characteristics "re-awakens" sexual urges
-they are no longer able to successfully repress their sexual desires, impulses, and urges
-they begin to search for a marital mate whom they can share sexual intimacy
-girls will look for a mate that reminds them of their father, boys will look for a mate that reminds them of their mother
What did Freud believe about defense mechanisms?
-we are anxious about our unacceptable wishes and impulses, and we repress this anxiety with the help of defense mechanisms
At what level do defense mechanisms operate at?
-an unconscious level
Are we aware of defense mechanisms during the time that we are using them?
-no we are not aware of them during the time we are actually using them
Can we later be made aware of their previous operation and use?
What are the different types of defense mechanisms?
3. reaction formation
What is repression?
-pushing unacceptable and anxiety-producing thoughts into the unconscious
What does repression involve?
-intentional forgetting but not consciously done; repressed material can be memories or unacceptable impulses
What is an example of repression?
-a rape victim cannot recall the details of the attack
What is regression?
-acting in ways characteristic of earlier life stages/earlier stages of personality
What is an example of regression?
-rising kindergartner sucks his thumb on the drive to his first day of school
What is reaction formation?
-replacing an anxiety-producing feeling with its exact opposite
-typically going overboard, repressed thoughts appear as mirror opposites
What is an example of reaction formation?
-being exceedingly friendly to your boss even though you can't stand her
-a politician gives anti-gay speeches, then turns out to have homosexual tendancies
What is rationalization?
-creating false but believable excuses to justify inappropriate behavior
-real motive for behavior is not accepted by ego
What is an example of rationalization?
-cheating on an exam, then explaining that cheating is legitimate on an unfair examination
What is denial?
-claiming and believing that something which is actually true is false
What is an example of denial?
-refusing to believe evidence that shows your boyfriend is cheating on you
What is displacement?
-redirecting emotional feelings (anger) to a substitute target
What does displacement involve?
-directing unacceptable impulses onto a less threatening object/person
What is an example of displacement?
-a man is angry at the way his boss treated him, screams at his children
What is projection?
-attributing one's own unacceptable feelings or beliefs to others
-perceiving the external world in terms of one's own personal conflicts
What is an example of projection?
-an employee at a store, tempted to steal some merchandise, suspects that other employees are stealing
What is sublimation?
-substituting socially acceptable behavior for unacceptable impulses
What is an example of sublimation?
-playing video games instead of getting in a fight
-becoming a stand-up comic making "jokes" about your terrible childhood
Evaluate Freud's Theories
1. His theories are hard to test/unfalsifiable
2.Data collected from biased samples
3. Data collection methods are not scientific
How are Freud's theories hard to test/unfalsifiable?
-do not generate testable predictions
-offer post-facto explanations (hindsight bias)
How is Freud's data collected from biased samples?
-theories based on a small segment of the patient population, not representative
How were Freud's data collection methods not scientific?
-using free associations and dream analysis to prove there are unconscious processes engages circular logic
Explain the Historical Context of Freud's theories...
-Austrian society during the second half of the 19th century characterized by a very rigorous form of sexual morality
-women expected to live home-bound lives
-not allowed to socialize outside the home
-completely shut out of the political sphere
-growing knowledge of sexual diseases (syphilis)
-contend with the fact that although sexuality is highly morally and politically regulated, people are engaging in sexual behavior
What did Freud do to explain what he saw in society?
-he came up with a theory
What was wrong with Freud's theories?
he mistakenly attributed accounts of childhood sexual abuse to childhood fantasies related to electra complex
What are contemporary explanations for development?
-development is lifelong, not set in by childhood
What are contemporary explanations for slips of the tongue?
may be unconscious
How could slips of the tongue be unconscious?
-priming, schemas, conditioned responses
What is a contemporary problem with freud's theory of repression?
-traumatic memories are usually intensely remembered (flashbulb memories) not repressed
What is a contemporary problem with the Oedipus complex and relationships with parents?
-gender and sexual identity are more of a function of genetics than Oedipus conflicts and relationships with parents
What is important about Freud's legacy?
-he drew attention to the unconscious
-struggling to cope with sexuality
-addressing conflict between biological impulses and social restraints
-identifying "defense mechanisms"
What did neofreudians believe?
-accepted basic personality structure made up of id, ego, superego
-accepted the role of defense mechanisms in reducing anxiety about uncomfortable ideas
-placed more emphasis on social motives rather than sexual or aggression related ones
What do contemporary psychodynamic theorists believe?
-reject Freud's emphasis on sexual motivation
-view mental life as primarily unconscious
-contend childhood social experiences influence adult personality and attachment patterns
Who are two distinguished neofreudians?
1 .Alfred Adler
2. Karen Horney
What did Alfred Adler believe?
-greater focus on interpersonal and social influences
-his approach, known as psychology, centered on the drive that all people have to compensate for their feelings of inferiority
-their inferiority complex was a person's feelings and doubts that they do not measure up to other people or to society's expectations
Who is Karen Horney?
-one of the first women trained in psychoanalysis
What did Karen Horney believe?
-objected the Freud's portrayal of women as suffering from "penis envy"
-Basic anxiety stemmed from the individual's feelings of isolation and helplessness in a hostile world
-fundamental issue for the person is not sexuality but security
What is a contemporary psychodynamic theory?
-object relations theory
What is object relations theory?
-refers to the relationships that people have with others (represented mentally as objects with certain attributes)
-people are motivated most by attachments to others rather than by sexual and aggressive impulses
-conflict between autonomy and then need for other people plays a key role in shaping personality
What is the psychodynamic theory's source of information about personality?
-expert analysis from people in therapy
What does psychodynamic theory believe about the cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings?
-unconscious internal conflict that stem from childhood experiences and pleasure-seeking impulses vs. social restraints
What is the psychdynamic theory's outlook on humans?
What is the humanistic source of information about personality?
-self reports from general populations and people in therapy
What is the humanistic belief of the cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings?
-conscious feelings about oneself (based on experience)
What is the humanistic outlook on humans?
What is humanism?
-focusing on the conditions that support healthy personal growth
Where did humanism grow out of?
-a rejection of dysfunctional view of people in psychodynamic theory
What are the basic tenants of humanism?
-humans are free and basically good
-everyone has the potential for healthy growth
-healthy growth involves self-actualization
What do humanists believe about self-actualization?
-given the right environmental conditions, we can all reach our full potential
-"be all that you can be"
What is self-actualization?
-fulfilling one's potential
What are the personality characteristics of a self-actualizing person?
-focusing on a greater mission than social acceptance
Carl Rogers and Self-actualization
What are the three conditions that facilitate growth?
What is genuine?
-being honest, direct, not using a facade
What is acceptance?
-unconditional positive regard
-acknowledging feelings without passing judgement
What is empathy?
-tuning into the feelings of others, showing your efforts to understand, listening well
What did Carl Rogers believe self concept is?
-image or perception of ourselves
-evaluation by others
What did Carl Rogers believe about self-actualization?
-if there isn't overlap between you ideal self and your self image, you are not self-actualized
Explain a fully-functioning person
open to experience: accepts both positive and negative emotions
existential living: able to live and fully appreciate the present, not always looking back to the past or forward to the future (living in the moment)
Trust feelings: people's own decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices
Creativity: engages in creative thinking and risk taking. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences
Fulfilled Life: person is happy and satisfied with life, and always looking for new challenges and experiences
Evaluate Humanistic Theories
-difficult to generate testable hypotheses
-does not explain personality pathology
-"fully functioning" person is a westernized concept
-humanistic approaches incorporates into therapy
Why do humanistic theories not explain personality pathology?
-Rogers saw "evil" as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait
-why do some people make poor choices in the face of better options?
What is personality made up of?
-a collection of traits that are behavioral predispositions that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person
What is a source of information about personality?
-observation of behavior and questionnaires
What is the cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings?
-stable internal characteristics and some genetic basis
What is the trait theories' outlook on humans?
-neutral, neither positive or negative
ASK ABOUt THIS
What is the lexical hypothesis an example of?
-t-a trait theory
What is the lexical hypothesis?
the individual differences that are most salient and socially relevant in people's lives become encoded in their lanuage
What did Allport and Odbert do?
-they extracted 4500 adjectives describing observable and enduring personality traits from the dictionary
-later distilled down to 16 factors and eventually 5 factors
What were Allport and Odbert careful not to do?
-chose words that did not describe physical traits
What supports five factors as the basis of personality?
-current cross-culture research and theories
What are the 5 factors that are the basis of personality?
What is conscientiousness?
-self-discipline, careful pursuit of delayed goals
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