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Chapter 28 Pregnancy and Human Development Quiz and Practice Test
Terms in this set (51)
After fertilization, the zygote goes through a rapid period of cell divisions called __________.
Which statement about maternal hormones during pregnancy is accurate?
A. Estrogen levels decline throughout gestation.
B. hCG levels remain stable throughout gestation.
C. Progesterone levels decline throughout gestation.
D. hCG levels increase throughout gestation.
E. Estrogen levels increase throughout gestation.
Implantation is completed after the __________.
A. corpus luteum deteriorates
B. amnion has formed
C. yolk sac forms
D. nervous system forms
E. blastocyst is entirely surrounded by endometrium
The outermost extraembryonic membrane is the __________.
B. yolk sac
The development of the primary germ layers is called __________.
Which of the following structures is/are formed from ectodermal tissues?
The function of the ductus arteriosus is to __________.
A. deliver oxygen-rich blood to the liver
B. deliver oxygen-poor blood to the placenta
C. bypass the pulmonary circuit
D. bypass the coronary circuit
E. deliver oxygen-rich blood to the placenta
Which of the following is NOT a function of the placenta?
A. respiratory gas transfer
B. waste elimination
C. nutrient transfer
D. urine formation
E. hormone production
Which of the following factors is NOT considered to be a teratogen?
Which hormone produced by the placenta causes the mother's pubic symphysis to loosen and widen?
An implantation that takes place in a site other than the uterus is called __________.
Which of the following is NOT a common metabolic/physiological change that occurs in pregnant women?
A. increased urine production
B. glucose sparing
C. decreased blood pressure
E. increased respiratory rate
Which maternally derived hormone induces and controls labor via a positive feedback mechanism?
Which sequence shows the correct order of the stages of labor?
A. dilation, placental, expulsion
B. placental, dilation, expulsion
C. expulsion, placental, dilation
D. dilation, expulsion, placental
E. expulsion, dilation, placental
The Apgar score range that indicates a healthy baby is __________.
A. 0 to 2
B. 2 to 4
C. 4 to 6
D. 6 to 8
E. 8 to 10
Which structure represents the remnants of the atrial fetal shunt?
A. fossa ovalis
B. ligamentum venosum
C. ligamentum teres
D. ductus arteriosus
E. foramen ovale
What is the function of the hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)?
A. It causes the uterine lining to slough off or shed to maintain pregnancy.
B. It signals the corpus luteum to continue producing estrogen and progesterone to maintain the pregnancy.
C. It stimulates the production of FSH by the pituitary.
D. It inhibits the production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovary.
E. It increases to high levels near birth, helping initiate the birth process.
The heart begins to beat in the developing offspring __________.
A. when it becomes a fetus
B. at about 3 ½ weeks
C. at conception
D. at birth
E. at 3 to 4 months
Implantation of the blastocyst begins __________ after ovulation.
A. 1 day
B. 3 days
C. 6 to 7 days
D. 3 weeks
E. 1 month
Prolactin causes __________.
A. increased hCG excretion during the first month of pregnancy
B. uterine contractions only
C. myometrial contractions and let-down reflex
D. milk production by the breast tissue
Meconium is __________.
A. a fluid initially secreted by the mammary glands before true milk is produced
B. the hormone that is termed "the natural birth control" and inhibits the release of GnRH
C. sloughed-off epithelial cells, bile, and other substances
D. the hormone that causes a positive feedback mechanism to continue milk production
All of the following structures are derived from mesoderm EXCEPT __________.
A. smooth muscle
B. the liver
E. cardiac muscle
Which of the following does NOT prevent polyspermy?
A. the zona reaction
B. the release of enzymes into the extracellular space beneath the zona pellucida
C. the cortical reaction
D. the release of Ca2+ after the sperm has entered the ovum
E. a decrease in zonal inhibiting proteins
Sperm are known to bear __________ that respond to chemical stimuli that help them locate the oocyte.
B. hydrolytic enzymes
C. olfactory receptors
Which of the following does NOT describe a function of trophoblast cells?
A. They secrete hCG.
B. The inner layers of trophoblasts lose their plasma membranes and invade the endometrium.
C. They take part in placental formation.
D. They display L-selectin molecules on their surface after blastocyst hatching.
The disc-shaped placenta is formed from the __________.
A. chronic villi and the decidua capsularis
B. chronic villi and the decidua basalis
C. yolk sac
D. inner cell mass
During early gastrulation, what structure(s) appear(s) on the dorsal aspect of the embryonic disc and establish(e)s the longitudinal axis of the embryo?
C. primitive streak
The first major event of organogenesis is __________.
A. mesenchyme production
D. amnion formation
The only 100% effective method of birth control is __________.
C. total abstinence
Which of the following statements about the foramen ovale is FALSE?
A. It allows blood to pass directly from the right atrium into the left ventricle.
B. It is one of the shunt systems encountered by blood entering and leaving the heart before birth.
C. It serves to bypass the nonfunctional lung.
D. It is an opening in the interatrial septum.
__________ refers to events that occur from the time of fertilization (conception) until the infant is born.
A. Gestation period
For successful fertilization to occur, coitus must occur NO more than __________ and NO later than __________.
A. three days before ovulation; two days after
B. two days before ovulation; 24 hours after
C. 24 hours before ovulation; two days after
D. two days before ovulation; two days after
The process of implantation generally begins __________ and is usually completed by __________.
A. two to three days after ovulation; the sixth or seventh day after ovulation
B. the day after ovulation; the third day after ovulation
C. six to seven days after ovulation; the twelfth day after ovulation
D. the day before ovulation; the third day after ovulation
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels spike within the first two months of pregnancy and then sharply decline by four months.
By the end of the third month of pregnancy, the placenta is usually fully functional as a nutritive, respiratory, excretory, and endocrine organ.
In humans, the extraembryonic membrane that composes the structural base for the umbilical cord is the __________.
C. yolk sac
The ectoderm is the primary germ layer from which the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital systems and the associated glands form.
The first major event in organogenesis is gastrulation.
Which of the following occurs eight weeks into pregnancy?
A. The eyes open.
B. Quickening occurs.
C. The head of the fetus is nearly as large as the body.
D. Sex is readily detected by observing the genitals.
Which of the following occurs 17-20 weeks into pregnancy, during the fetal period?
A. The head of the fetus is nearly as large as the body.
B. Quickening occurs.
C. The eyes open.
D. Sex is readily detected by observing the genitals.
A weight gain of approximately 13 kg (about 28 lb) usually occurs during pregnancy.
_______ and __________ are both hormones and powerful uterine muscle stimulants that cause contractions to become more frequent and more vigorous.
A. Human chorionic gonadotropin; relaxin
B. Oxytocin; prostaglandins
C. Estrogen; progesterone
D. Relaxin; oxytocin
__________ occurs when a woman has a deformed or male-like pelvis, resulting in prolonged and difficult labor; this condition can lead to fetal brain damage, ultimately causing cerebral palsy or epilepsy.
Coitus interruptus is among the most effective birth control methods.
An Apgar score of 8 to 10 indicates a healthy baby.
Chorionic villi look like ________________
A. rings of chorionic canals in the uterine wall
B. feathery extensions of the chorion in the uterine wall
C. blood filled channels in the uterine wall
D. fingers stuck into the uterine wall
This structure surrounds the early embryo and the fluid that fills it protects the embryo:
This portion of the blastocyst forms the embryo proper:
B. inner cell mass (ICM)
C. zona pellucida
The placenta is formed by:
A. maternal and fetal tissues
B. fetal tissues
C. maternal tissues
The process of cellular division by which gametes are formed is called:
All changes between mother and embryo occur:
A. through the allantois
B. as maternal and fetal blood mix in the placenta
C. through the amniotic fluid
D. across the chorionic membranes
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