GACS - lclab - Biology - Chapter 7 Vocabulary
Chapter 7 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (42)
the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms
one of the fundamental ideas of modern biology and includes 3 principles.
cell theory - 3 principles
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living things.
3. Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their genetic material in the their daughter cells.
a special barrier that helps control what enters and leaves the cell.
specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions
contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes. Also called membrane-bound organelles.
cells WITHOUT a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
a distinct central organelle that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA.
part of the plasma membrane where the membrane allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out.
two layers of phospholipids that are arranged tail-to-tail
move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane and therefore contribute to the selective permeability of the plasma membrane
fluid mosaic model
the "sea" that is created by the phospholipid layers where the components of the plasma membrane are in constant motion, sliding past one another.
the semifluid environment inside the plasma membrane of a cell where all the chemical processes take place
a supporting network of long, thin protein fibers that form a framework for the cell and provide an anchor for the organelles inside the cell.
the organelles that help manufacture PROTEINS
the site of ribosome production that is within the nucleus
a membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serves as the site for protein and lipid synthesis. Often called ER for short.
a flattened stack of membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into sacs called vesicles
a membrane-bound sac used for temporary storage of materials within the cytoplasm that are needed by the cell like food or enzymes. Some store waste.
the clean-up crew... vesicles that contain substances that digest excess or worn-out organelles and food particles
a sac of proteins
organelles made of microtubules that function during dell division. They are located near the nucleus.
a cells energy generator or powerhouse... it converts fuel particles (mainly sugars) into usable energy.
plants and some other eukaryotic cells contain these organelles that capture light energy and convert it to a chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis
associated with plant cells and is a thick, rigid, mesh of fibers that surround the outside of the plasma membrane and gives the cell support
short, numerous projections that look like hair and stick outside of the plasma membrane
long and less numerous (usual only 2) projections that are whip-like and stick outside of the plasma membrane
the net movement of particles from an area where there are many particles of the substance to an area where there are fewer particles of the substance
the amount of the substance in a particular area during diffusion
the point at which particles mix, continue to move randomly, but no further change in concentration occurs (red and blue ink mixing to form purple... once its get to purple, it stays purple)
the process that uses transport proteins to move other ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane
the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. It regulates the movement of water across the plasma membrane
when a cell is in a solution that has the SAME concentration of water and solutes (ions, sugars, proteins) as its cytoplasm... therefore there is no movement of water in or out.
when a cell is in a solution that has a LOWER concentration of solutes than what it has inside... therefore water moves INTO the cell
when a cell is in a solution that has a HIGHER concentration of solutes that what it has inside... therefore water moves out of the cell
when a substance needs energy to move across the plasma membrane because it moving "against the current" from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration
when substances are too large to move into the plasma membrane by diffusion or transport proteins it moves alongside the plasma membrane which encloses it and allows it to enter the cell BUT keeps the substance in a vacuole
a secretion of materials at the plasma membrane
strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins