Society and Culture
Terms in this set (57)
What is a debate in society and culture?
-the person situation debate
What is personality?
-an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
What does personality psychology seek to answer?
-why different people may act differently in a given situation
What does social psychology focus on?
-the "situation side" of the debate
What does social psychology seek to answer?
-why the same person will act differently in different situations
What is attribution?
-a conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event
What is attribution theory?
-we explain others' behavior with two types of attributions
What are the different types of attribution?
1) situational attribution
2) dispositional attribution
What is situational attribution?
-factors outside the person doing the action
What is an example of situational attribution?
What is dispositional attribution?
-the person's stable enduring traits, personality, ability, emotions, etc
When does the fundamental attribution error occur?
-it occurs when we overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of the situation in explaining others' (negative) behavior
What do people often attribute to other people's behavior?
-their dispositions while giving situational; reasons for their own behavior
What is different in collectivist cultures?
they do not make the same kind of attributions
What else do collectivist cultures do differently?
-the behavior of others is attributed more to the situation
-credit for successes is given more to others
-blame for failure is taken on oneself
What is an example of fundamental attribution error?
-when there was a black boy shot, the fundamental attribution error was that the boy was dangerous and then that the cop was racist.
What is an attitude?
-feelings, ideas, and beliefs that affect how we approach and react to other people, objects, and events
What will we study with regards to attitudes and actions?
-we will study how actions affect behavior and how behavior affects attitude
What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
-the tendency to be more likely to agree to a large request after agreeing to a small one
What is an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
-once you've agreed to sign a petition, you are more likely to donate money to the cause
What is the foot in the door phenomenon's affect on attitudes?
-people adjust their attitudes along with their actions
What is an example of people adjusting their attitudes along with their actions?
-liking the people/causes they agreed to help
-disliking the people/causes they agreed no to support
How does role playing affect our attitudes?
-when we play a role, even if we know it is just pretending, we eventually tend to adopt the attitudes that go with the role, and become the role
What are examples of role playing affecting our attitudes?
-in arranged marriages, people often come to have deep love for the person they marry
-actors say they "lose" themselves in roles
What happened during the Stanford prison experiment?
-participants ended up adopting the attitudes of whatever roles they were randomly assigned to
-guards had demeaning views of prisoners
-prisoners had rebellious dislike of the guards
What is cognitive dissonance?
-when our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes
What is the cognitive dissonance theory?
-we tend to resolve cognitive dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit our actions
What happened in Festinger's study in 1957?
-students were paid either a large 20$ or small amount 1$ to express enjoyment of a boring activity
-later many of the students changed their attitudes about the activity
-20-I was paid to say that
1-why would I lie and say that it was fun? just for a dollar? maybe it wasn't so bad, now that I think about it
What is conformity?
-the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms
When might our behavior follow a norm rather than our own judgement?
-when we are with other people and perceive a social norm
What is a social norm?
-a "correct" or "normal" way to behave or think
What is the chameleon effect a facet of?
What is the chameleon effect?
-unintentionally mirroring the body position and mood of others around us
What is an example of the chameleon effect?
-contagious arm folding
What happens to our mood when we are around other people?
-empathetic shifts in mood fit the mood of the people around us
What is an example of automatic mimicry and the chameleon effect?
-in an experiment, a confederate of the experiment intentionally rubber his/her face or shook their foot
-this seemed to lead to a greater likelihood of the study participant doing the same behavior
Explain conformity in Vervet monkeys?
-different groups trained to prefer red v. nlue corn
-infants adopt the preferences of their others
-monkeys from blue-preferring groups migrated into red-preferring groups and visa versa
-migrant monkeys conformed to eat the color preferred by their new social group
What are the two types of social influence?
1. normative social influence
2. informational social influence
What is normative social influence?
-going along with others in pursuit of social approval or belonging (and to avoid disapproval/rejection)
What is an example of normative social influence?
-the Asch conformity studies; clothing choices
What is informational social influence?
-going along with others because their ideas and behavior makes sense, the evidence in our social environment changes our minds
What is an example of informational social influence?
-deciding which side of the road to drive on
What is obedience?
-a form of social influence in which a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authority figure
What was the Milgrim Study about?
What was the question of the Milgrim study?
-under what social conditions are people more likely to obey commands?
What was the Milgrim study experiment?
-an authority figure tells participants to administer shocks to a "learner" when the learner gives the wrong answer
What was the prediction of the Milgrim study?
-in surveys, most people predict that in such a situation they would stop administering shocks when the learner expressed pain
What factos increased obedience?
-when orders were given by someone in legitimate authority
-When someone associated the experiment with a prestigious institution
-when someone was standing close by
-when the learner/victim is in another room
-when other participants obey and/or no one disobeys a(no model for defiance)
Besides conformity and obedience, what are the other ways our behavior changes in the presence of others or within a group?
1. social facilitation
3. group polarization
4. social loafing
What is social facilitation?
-individuals performance is intensified when you are observed by others
-experts excel, people doing simple activities show more speed and endurance in front of an audience but novices, trying complex skills, do worse
What is social loafing?
the tendency of people in a groups to show less effort when not held individually accountable
Why does social loafing happen?
-when your contribution isn't rewarded or punished, you might not care what people think
-people may not feel their contributions are needed, that the group will be fine
-People may feel free to cheat when they get an equal share of the rewards anyway
Do people in collectivist cultures slack off as much in groups even when they can?
What is deindividualization?
-loss of self-awareness and self-restraint
What are examples of deindividualization?
-riots, KKK rallies, concerts, online bullying
When does deindividualization happen?
-when people are in group situations involving anonymity and arousal
What is group polarization?
-when people of similar views form a group together, discussion within the group makes their view more extreme
-different groups become MORE different, more polarized in their views
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