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154 terms

Nutrition Final. Chapter 12, 14, 15 and 16

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There are an estimated ___ chronically undernourished people in the world.
800 million to 1.1 billion
The number one killer of children in developing countries is
diarrhea
The human organism is particularly susceptible to the effects of undernutrition during
Pregnancy, infancy and childhood
A barrier to solving undernutrition in the developing world is NOT
a lack of manpower
Many of the child deaths each year in developing countries could be prevented if
Sanitation and hygiene were improved
The food stamp program, recently renamed the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, allows what?
Low income people to purchace food and seeds with government issued Electronic Benefit transfer card
a long term solution to world hunger is
jobs and sufficiency
Bt corn has been genertically modified to make
a protein toxic to caterpillars that can destroy the corn plant
Genetically modified soybeans make up ___% of the soybeans grown in the U.S.
90
FDA reguires the statement "contains genetically modified ingredients" on the label of all food containing genetically modified ingredients.
False
Define Xerophthalmia
"Dry eye". Cause of blindness that results from a vitamin A deficiency. a lack of mucus production by the eye, which leaves it at a greater risk of damage from surface dirt and bacteria.
Malnutrition
failing health that results from long standing dietary practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs.
Undernutrition
Failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs.
Biotechnology
a collection of processes that involves the use of biological systems for altering and improving the characterisitics of plants, animals and other forms of life.
Famine
extreme shortage of food, leads to massive starvation in a population; associated with crop failures, war and political unrest
Green revolution
increase in crop yields that accompied the introduction of new agricultural technologies in less developed countries, beginning in the 1960s. the key technology were high yielding, disease resistant strains of rice, wheat and corn; greater use of fertilizer and war; and improved cultivation practices.
let down reflex
a reflex stimulated by infant suckling that causes the release (ejection) of milk from milk ducts in the mothers breasts, also called milk ejection reflex.
life span
the potential oldest age a person can reach
life expectancy
the average length of a life for a given group of people born in a specific year
reverse capacity
the extent to where a organ can preserve essentially normal function despite decreasing cell number or cell activity
Poverty is linked to what?
Chronic or periodic undernutrition
Malnutrition can occur when what
When the food supply is either scarce or abundant
What is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries?
Undernutrition
Undernutrition diminishes what?
Physical and metal capabilities
What programs have focused on improving the nutritional health of poor and at risk people
special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children (WIC)
What factors contribute to the problem of undernutrition in the developing world?
Multiple factors, in densely populated countries, food resources as well as the means for distributing food may be inadequate. Farming methods often encourage erosion, which deprives the soil of valuable nutrients and therby hampers future efforts to grow food. Limited water availability hinders food production. Naturally occuring devastation from droughts, excessive rainfall, fire, crop infestations and human causes- urbanization, war and civil unrest, debt, poor sanitation, and AIDS
Food insecure
condition in which the quality, variety, and or desirability of the diet is reduced and there is difficulty at times providing enough food for everyone in the household.
hunger
the primarily physiological (internal) drive to find and eat food
food insecutiry
a condition of anxiety regarding running out of either food or money to buy more food
malnutrition
failing health that results from longstanding dietary practices that do not concide with nutritional needs
undernutrition
failing health that results from a longstanding dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs
famine
an extreme shortage of food, which leads to massive starvation in a population; often associated with crop failures, war, and political unrest.
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formely food stamp program)
Electronic Benefit transfer (debt) cards are given to purchase food at grocery stores; the amount is based of size of household and income
the emergency food assitance program (TEFAP)
provides nutrition assistance to needy Americans through distribution of USDA food commodies
commodity supplemental food program
USDA surplus foods are distrubuted to country agencies; not found in all states; may be based on nutritional risk
special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children (WIC)
coupons are given to purchase milk, cheese, fruit juice, cereal, infant formula, and other specific food items at grocery stores; including nutrition education components. Includes new farmers markety nutrition program
National school lunch program
free or reduced price lunch is distrubuted by the school; meal follows USDA pattern based on MyPyramid; cost for the child depends on family income.
school breakfast program
free or reduced price breakfast is distributed by school
child and adult care food program
reimbursment is given for meals supplied to children at the site;
congregate meals for the elderly
free noon meal if furnished at site
home delivered meals
noon meal is delievered at no cost or for a donation 5 days a week.
summer food service program
free, nutritious meals and snacks are given to children in a low income area at a central site, such as school or community center during long school vacations
food distribution program on indian reservations
alternative to supplemental nutrition assistance program, distribution of monthly food packages
fresh fruit and vegetable program
provides free fresh fruits and vegetavles to increase their consumption to and combat childhood obesity
food desert
an area were 33% or 500 people, live more than a mile from a grocery store in an urban area or more than 10 miles away in a rural area
Infrastructure
the basic framework of a system of organization. for a society, this includes roads, bridges, telephones and other basic technologies
Human immunodefiency virus
the virus that leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
a disorder in which a virus (HIV) infects specific types of immune system cells. this leaves the person with reduces immune function and in turn defenseless against numberous infections agents' typically contributes to a peersons death
sustainable development
economic growth that will stimulaneously reduce poverty, protect the enviornment, and preserve natural capital
gender and development approach
understanding the roles and responsbilities of both men and women in the process of sustainable development
sustainable agruculture
agricultural system that provides a secure living for farm families; maintains the natural environment and resources; supports the rural communities; and offers respect and fair treatment to all involved; from farm workers to consumers to the animals raised for food
biotechnology
a collection of processes that involves the use of biological systems for altering and ideally improving the characteristics of plants, animals and other forms of life
genetic engineering
malipulation of the genetic makeup of any organism with recombinant DNA technology
recombiant DNA technology
a test tube technology that rearranges DNA sequences in an organism by cutting the DNA, adding or deleting a DNA squence, and rejoing the DNA molecule with a series of enzymes
genetically modified organism
any organism created by genetic engineering
transgenic
organism that contains genese originally present in another organism
embryo
in humans, the developing offspring in utero from about the beginning of the third week to the end of the eighth week after conception
ovum
the egg cell from which a fetus eventually develops if the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell
fetus
the developing life form from about the beginning of the ninth week after conception until birth
placenta
an organ that forms in the uterus in pregnant women. through this organ, oxygen and nutrients from the mothers blood are transferred to the fetus and fetal wastes are removed. the placenta also releaes hormones that maintain the state of pregnancy
zygote
the fertilized ovum; the cell resulting from the union of an egg cell (ovum) an sperm until it divides
trimesters
three 13-14 to 14 week periods into which the normal pregnacy (the length of a normal pregnancy is about 40 weeks, measured from the first day of the womans last menstrual period) is divided somewhat abritraily for purposes of discussion and analysis. development of the offspring, is continous through pregnancy, with no specific physiological markers demarcating the transition from one trimester to the next
spontaneous abortion
cessation of pregnancy and expulsion of the embryo or nonviable fetus prior to 20 weeks gestation. this is the result of natural causes, such as a gentic or developmental problem; also called miscarriage
lactation
the period of milk secretion following pregnancy; typically called breastfeeding
gestation
the period of intrauterine development of offspring; from conception to birth; in humans, gestation lasts for about 40 weeks after the womans previous menstrual period
low birth weight
referring to any infant weighing less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) at birth; most commonly results from preterm birth
preterm
an infant born before 37 weeks of gestation; also known as premature
small for gestational age
referring to an infants who weigh less than the expected weight for their length of gestation. this correspons to less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) in a full term pregnancy. a preferm infant who is also SGA will most likely develop some medical complications
pica
the practice of eating nonfood items, such as dirt, laundry starch or clay
physiological anemia
the normal increase in blood volume in pregnancy that dilutes the concentration of red blood cells, resulting in anemia; also called hemodilution
gestational diabetes
a high blood glucose concentration that develops during pregnancy and returns to normal after bith; one cause is the placental production of hormones that antagonzie the regulation of blood glucose by insulin
pregnancy induced hypertension
a serious disorder than can include high blood pressure, kindey failure, convulsions, and even death of the mother and fetus. its exact cause is not known. an adequate diet and prenatal care may prevent this disorder or limit its severty. mild cases are known as preeclampsia; more severe cases are called eclampsia
lobules
saclike structures in the breat that store milk
prolactin
a hormone secreted by the pitutary glands that stimulates the synthhesis of milk in the breast
oxytocin
a hormone secreted by the pituitary glands. it causes contraction of the muscle like cells surrounding the ducts of the breasts and the smooth muscle of the uterus
colostrum
the first fluid secreted by the breast during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth. this thick fluid is rich in immmune factors and protein
lactobacillus bifidus factor
a protective factor in the colostrum that encourages growth of beneficial bacteria in the newborns intestines
atophic disease
condition resulting from an inappropraite immune response, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergies or ecxema
teratogen
a substance that may cause or increase the risk of a birth defect.
when is the best time to prepare for pregnancy
before conception even occurs
What stages are for a successful pregnancy
healthy body weight, avoiding toxic agents, correcting nutritional deficiencies and controlling existing medical conditions
pregnancy is divided into what
three trimesters of 13 to 14 weeks
the first trimester is characterized by what
a rapid increase in cell number as the zygote grows to be an embryo, then a fetus. the growing organism is most susceptible to damage from exposure to toxic agents or nutrient deficiencies.
by the start of the second trimester
the organs and limbs have formed and will continue to grow and develop
the third trimester
is marked by rapid fetal growth and storage of nutrients in preparation for life outside the womb
Pregnancy success is defined as what
1. Gestation longer than 37 weeks. 2. Birth weight greater than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kilograms)
Factors that predict pregnancy success are what
early and regular prenatal care, maternal age within the range of 20 to 25 years and adequate nutrition
factors that contribute to poor pregnancy are
inadequate prenantal care, obesity, underweight, teenage pregnacy, smoking, alcohol consumption, use of certain prescription medications, and all illicit drugs, inadequate nutrition, heavy caffeine use and various infections such as listerioosis
Women with a healthy prepregnancy BMI (18.5 to 24. 9), total weight gain should be what
within range of 25 to 35 pounds; undernutrition women and those carrying multiple fetuses should gain more; overweight and obese women should gain less. During the first trimester, she need not to increase diet quanity, the woman should focus on diet quality to meet increased requirements for protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, fiber, water, and vitamins and minerals.
A pregnant women typically needs an addition how many kcal per day during the second and third trimester
350 t0 450 kcal per day
for the infant, the advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding are what
1. fewer intestinal, respiratory and ear infections
2. fewer allergies
3. food intolerance
benefits for the mother for breastfeeding are
1. reduced risk for certain cancers
2. earlier return to prepregancy weight.
the fetus is most susceptible to damage from nutrient deficiencies; teratogens; and use of certain medications, alcohol and illict drugs during
the first trimester
an infant born at 38 weeks gestation weighing 5.0 pounds can be described as
LBW and SGA
If a woman is 5'2 and weights 150 pounds before becoming pregnant, how much weight should she gain during pregnancy
15 to 25 pounds ( 7 to 11.5 kilograms)
Increased carbohydrates needs during pregnancy are set to
prevent ketosis
which of the following is best paired with an iron supplement during pregnancy
Orange juice
A food plan for a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy differs from her prepregancy diet in that
fluid needs are higher, additional solid fats and added sugars are allowed, there are more servings from the grain group
consuming one cup of coffee per day is associated with
None of the abovr
Which of the following may help to alleviate nausea during pregnancy
Postponing use or iron supplements until the second trimester
which of the following conditions medically prevents a woman from breastfeeding her infant
infants are galactosemia
physiologically, milk production reguires __ kcal per day
800 kcal per day
undernutrition
failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs
percentile
classification of a measurement of a unit into divisions of 100 units
allergy
a hypersensitive immune response that occurs when immune bodies produced by us react with a protein we senese as foreign (as an antigen)
early childhood caries
tooth decay that results from formula or juice (and even human milk) bathing the teeth as the child sleeps with a bottle in his or her mouth. the upper teeth is mostly affected as the lower teeth are protected by the tongue; formerly called nursing bottle syndrom and baby bottle tooth decay
menarche
the onset of menstration. menarche usually occurs around age 13. 2 or 3 years after the first signs of puberty start to appear
anaphylatic shock
a severe allergic response that results in lowered blood pressure and respiratory and gastrointestinal distres. this can be fatal
antigen
any substance that induces a state of senesitivity or resistance to microogranisms to toxic substances after a lag period; substance that stimulates a specific aspect of the immune system
elimination diet
a restrictive diet that systematically tests foods that may cause an allergic respose by first eliminating them for one to two weeks and then adding them back, one at a time
inadequate intake of which of the following results in poor growth
calories. iron and zinc
an 11 month old girl who weights 19 pounds needs app. ___ kcal per day
690
introduction of cows milk should be delayed until 12 months of age because
contains too much protein
you are trying to introduce an apple and blueberry puree to a seven month old infant and she rejects it. you should
offer the food again on another day
milk is a nutrient dense source of all of the following except
iron
a gluten free, casein free diet may be used to treat
autism
to ensure adequate vitamin and mineral intake for a picky eater,
provide a fortified breakfast cereal
for treatment of overweight, school age children you should
exercise for 60 mins per day or more
to prevailing dietary habits of north american teenagers contribute to all of the following except
acne
your niece breaks out in hives and feels nauseous after eating a salad containg mago. she probalbly has a food
allergy
agin
time dependent physical and physicological change in body structure and function that occurs normally and progressively throught adulthood as humans mature and become older
reserve capacity
the extent to which an organ can preserve essentially normal function despite decreasing cell number or cell activity
kidney nephrons
the units of kidney cells that filter wastes from the bloodstream and deposit them into the urine
glycosylation
the process by which glucose attaches to glycates other compounds such as proteins
compression of morbidity
delay of the onset of disabilities caused by chronic disease
life span
the potential oldest age a person can reach
life expectancy
the average length of life for a given group of people born in a specific year
menopause
cessation of menses in women, usually start at age 50
ostomy
sugically created short circuit in intestinal flow where the end point usually opens from the abdominal cavity rather than the anus
sarcopenia
in general, loss of muscle tissue. among older adults this loss of lean mass increases their risk of illness and death
sarcopenic obesity
loss of muscle mass accompained by gains in fat mass
ethanol
chemical term for the form of alcohol found in alcoholic bevarages
alcohol dehydrogenase
an enzyme used in alcohol metabolism that converts alcohol into acetaldehyde
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
an enzyme used in ethanol metabolism that eventually converts acetaldehyde into carbon dioxide and water
alcohol abuse
excessive alcohol consumption that leads to severe alcohol related health and problems,
cirrhosis
loss of cuntioning liver cells, are replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue, any substance that posions liver cells can lead t ocirrhosis.
alcohol dependence
the person experiences repeated alcohol related difficulties, inability to control use, spending great deal of time associated with alcohol used, continued use of alcohol dispite physical, etc
alcoholism
as defined by the american medical association, illness characterized by significat impairment direclty related to persistend and excessive use of alochol
tumor
mass of cells may be cancerous (malignant) or noncanerous (benign)
bengign
noncancerous; tumors that do not spread
maligant
malcious; in reference to a tumor, property of spreading locally and to distant sites
metastasize
the spreading of disease from one part of the body to another, even to parts of the body that are remote from site of original tumor
endometrium
the membrane that lines the inside of the uters. increases in thickness during the menstrual cycle until ovulation occurs.
nitrosamine
carcinogen formed from nitrates and breakdown products of amino acidsl can lead to stomach cancer
among the older population of the U.S. that age of the fastest growing segment is __ years
85+
the diets of adults tend to be low in___
vitamin e, calcium and fiber
the reason the incidence of obesity increases with age is that
the basal metabolism rate decreases with age, physical activity often decreases with age and energy intake exceeds energy expenditure
the immune system becomes less efficieny with age, s oits especially important to consume adequate __ and __ nutrients that contribute to immune function
protein, zinc
which of the following accurately portrays a theory about the causes of aging
excess free radicals damage cell components
to maintain optimal nutritional status and healthy weight, the diet of an older person should have __ nutrient density and be __ in energy content
high; moderate
nutrition programs such as congregate meals or home delivered meals provide which of the following
improved nutritional status, social atmoshphere, and an economical meal for low income eldery
during aging the needs for vitamins and minerals
somewhat increases in some cases
alcohol is digested in the
none of the abolce; alcohol requires no digestion
alcohol is most damaging to the
liver cells where alcohol is metabolized.