78 terms

Astronomy Review 2

Vocabulary
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Terms in this set (...)

Corona
This layer of the sun is only seen during a total solar eclipse
Photosphere
This is the layer of the sun that we see from Earth
Sunspots
These are dark cooler areas on the sun's surface that are used to track the sun's rotation rate.
Auroras
These are produced when solar winds come in contact with our atmosphere
Prominences
Giant looping arches on the photosphere.
Solar Flare
Explosion on the surface of the sun that can interrupt radio communication.
Poles
Auroras occur near these
Light Year
Unit for measuring distance in space
The Milky Way
The name of our galaxy
Spiral
What type of galaxy is The Milky Way?
2
Minimum # of arms in a spiral galaxy?
Elliptical
The type of galaxy that looks like a flattened disc
Irregular
The type of galaxy that has no definite shape
Refracting
The type of optical telescope that uses lenses
Reflecting
The type of optical telescope that uses mirrors
Satellite
This tool does not leave Earth's orbit and are used for communication and data collection
Probe
This tool is used outside of Earth's orbit when the distance is too long or too dangerous for humans.
Spectroscope
This tool is used to refract light from stars to determine their composition
Nebula
Remnants of the formation of the universe. They formed from material from large dying stars.
Redshift
The color given off by galaxies and stars that are moving away from Earth.
Blueshift
The color given off by galaxies and stars that are moving closer to Earth.
Outward
Are all objects in the universe moving inward or outward?
Faster
Do objects that are far away from Earth move faster or slower than ones that are closer?
Space Observatories
What are The Hubble and the International Space Station?
tail
this comet structure always points away from the Sun
Magnetic Field
What protects Earth from Solar Winds?
meteor
chunk of rock from space that usually burns up in the atmosphere
meteorite
meteor that strikes the surface is referred to as this
asteroid
large chunk of rock that usually is found in a belt between Mars and Jupiter
comet
has a long, narrow, elliptical orbit and has a tail that emerges as it comes close to the sun
meteoroid
chunk of rock in space smaller than an asteroid
Jupiter
gas giant and largest planet
Earth
inner planet, terrestrial
Saturn
gas giant known for its rings
moon
natural satellite of a planet
gravity
force that is responsible for tides and pulls all objects together
high tide
higher ocean levels on the side of the Earth closest to the moon as well as the opposite side of the Earth
low tide
lower ocean levels on the sides of the Earth not having high tide
inertia
keeps objects moving in space
neap tide
high tide is lower, low tide is higher
spring tide
low tide is lower, high tide is higher
solar eclipse
When the Sunlight is blocked by the moon during the day
lunar eclipse
When the light from the moon is blocked by the Earth
new moon
moon phase that can result in a solar eclipse
full moon
moon phase that can result in a lunar eclipse
day
one rotation of the Earth on its axis
year
one revolution of the Earth around the Sun
seasons
caused by the tilt of the Earth as it travels around the Sun
23.5
degrees the Earth is tilted on its axis
365
days it takes the Earth to revolve around the Sun
29
days it takes the Moon to orbit the Earth
27
days it takes the Moon to rotate one time
3
number of months in each season
winter
occurs when the northern hemisphere is receiving the least direct light from the Sun
summer
occurs when the northern hemisphere is receiving the most direct light from the Sun
spring
occurs when their is even amounts of direct light falling on the hemispheres; the opposite hemisphere is having fall
June 21
longest day and shortest night for the Northern Hemisphere
December 21
shortest day and longest night for the Northern Hemisphere
waxing
this image shows the moon's light doing this
waning
this images shows the moon's light doing this
hydrogen
element that changes as a star ages; spectroscopes are useful in studying this element in a star
inner planets
small and rocky; orbits are less elliptical
outer planets
mostly massive gas giants; orbits are more elliptical
pluto
has the longest year (orbit around the Sun)
mercury
has the shortest year (orbit around the Sun)
emission spectrum
pattern of light given off by a star and objects reflecting light in space; useful when identifying elements with a spectroscope
expanding
most galaxies and stars appear red, providing evidence that our universe is doing this
our solar system's location
2/3 of the way from center of the galaxy on a spiral arm
age of a galaxy
determined by 1. measuring the rate of expansion of the universe and 2. looking for the oldest stars
spiral
galaxy shape with two or more arms
elliptical
galaxy shape that looks like a sphere or flattened disk
irregular
galaxy shape that has no definite shape
comet
made of ice, gas, dust and orbits the sun. Has long narrow elliptical orbit
mass
increasing this increases gravity
nebula
gas and dust in space leftover from the formation of the universe
2 light years
takes light two years to reach this object in space
4 light years
takes four light years to reach this object in space
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