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55 terms

AP Gov Semester 1

STUDY
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independents
people whose party indentification differs from that of their parents
blacks
most consistently liberal racial minority in the U.S.
liberalism
in general, the more schooling you have, the more your political attitude will reflect this
populist
one who is liberal on econoic issues, but conservative in regard to issues of personal conduct
political ideology
a coherent and consistent set of beliefs about who ought to rule, what principles rulers should obey, and what policies they ought to pursue
elites
the group whose views the gov't pays the most attention to
gender gap
differences in political views between men and women
economics
the policy area in which southerners are most likely to agree wiht northerners
new class
changes in the occupational structure during the last few decades have produced this classification
J.S. Mills
The English writer whose views form the backdrop to both classical liberalism and modern libertarianism
red diaper baby
term used to describe the children of parents who particiapted in radical movements of the 1960's
Catholics
majority of memebers of this religious group voted Republican in 2004 for the first time in many years
Democratic Party
voters in the south have become progressively more attached to this party
social sciences
college students majoring in this area tend to be the most liberal
Franklin Roosevelt
prior to this president's term in office, one who favored free markets would generally have been called a liberal
ideological constraint
the degree to which a person's opinions are consistent across time or from one issue to the next at any given point in time
label
the key term in the definintion of a political party
faction
the founders viewed politcal parties as a type of this
national party committees
select the time and place of the national convention
party machines
characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member activities
Thomas Jefferson
organized the first Republican party, with its base of support in the South
superdelegates
elected officials and party leaders who are not required to pledge themselves in advance to a presidential canidate
primary election
the method by which canidates are chosen for office in most states
solidary parties
party organizations based on their members' enjoyment of the sociability of politics
the Jacksonian
the era during which, for the first time, a party system was built from the bottom up
personal following
support from this source is what a person wanting to win an election today will most often seek
Anti- Masonic party
they held the first party convention in American history
stalwarts
party professionals, as opposed to volunteers
the Japanese
the culture highlighted in the text as stressing harmony and group cohesion in their social relations
swedes
described as having more deferential than participatory relationship with their government
voting
the area of participation in regards to which americans compart least favorably with europeans
protestantism
the dominant religious tradition in the early U.S.
congregational
churches organized along these lines provided training and experience in miniature political systems for many Americans
unitary system
allows the national government the right to alter or even abolish local government
Tenth Amendment
an explicit statement of state powers added later to the original constitution
concurrent powers
powers that are granted to the national government but not denied to the states
necessary and proper clause
the constitutional source for the concept of implied powers
inherent powers
powers that all governments are assumed to have
Commerce clause
allows congress to regulate almost any kind of economic activity
block grants
grants that were designed to remedy a common criticism of categorical grants, namely, that they lacked specificity
revenue sharing
federal grants over which state governments have the widest discretion
1960's
decade during which federal grants were increasingly based upon what federal officials perceived to be national needs
land grants
first form of grants-in-aid to the states by the federal govenrment were in this form
conditions of aid
federal rules that states must follow if they choose to receive the federal grants with which the rules are associated
mandates
federal rules that states must follow, whether or not they receive federal grants
intergovernmental lobby
an interest group made up of mayors, govenors, and other state and local officials who depend on federal funds
devolution
the return of control over important government functions back to the states
104th
the congress most closely associated with devolution
John Marshall
the U.S. supreme court chief justice whose own views of federal power were closely aligned with Hamilton's
police powers
a state's power to enact laws and regulations, not otherwise unconstituional, that promote health, safety, and morals
initiative
process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot
recall
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
franks
these free mailings are one of hte advantages that incumbents have over challengers
gerrymandering
drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizzare shapes to favor one party
coattails
the alleged tendency of canidates to win more votes in an election because of t