Terms in this set (54)
Articles of confederation
the document that created the first central government for the United States; it was replaced by the Constitution in 1789
a series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
Revolutionary war veteran and farmer who led Shays' Rebellion in 1786.
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
the federalist papers
essays that explained and defended the constitution
those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies. "give me liberty or give me death!"
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States.
Leader of the continental army and 1st president
United States statesman and leader of the Federalists.
American Revolutionary leader and patriot
A cousin of Samuel Adams and a lawyer who defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
the introduction to the Constitution
the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units
rule of law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
Powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
powers given to the federal government by the Constitution
powers given to the state government alone
seperation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
the 14th ammendment states that no person should be denied the same protection of law enjoyed by others
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
remove from office
a vote that blocks a decision
articles of the constitution
state what the legislatures can and connot do. rules of the government
bill of rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States guaranteeing the right of free expression
the elastic clause
congress may stretch their powers as needed
the establishment clause
there should be a wall between church and state
protects you from unreasonable search and seizure of your home and property
Prohibits government from forcing individuals to testify against themselves.
Right to a Speedy Trial
Right to trial by jury in civil cases
No cruel or unusual punishment
powers reserved to the states
free exercise clause
1st amendment requirement that law cannot prevent free exercise of religion
the supremacy clause
Makes the Constitution, and federal statutes and treaties, the supreme law of the land
Gave African Americans citizenship
Banned states from denying African Americans the right to vote
amendment that gave Congress the power to create income taxes
gave women the right to vote
twenty sixth amendment
Lowered voting age to 18.
2/3 vote in congress, 3/4 of states
3/4 of states
the electoral college
an indirect method for electing the President
members of the Electoral College who do not vote for whom they are pledged to
the twelfth amendment
Requiring electors to cast separate votes for president and vice president
Emanuel Celler, Chairman of the US House of Representatives, complained about Nixon's getting elected with less popular votes than the other candidate. Despite the fact that it was approved in congress, it died in the Senate
judiciary act of 1789
established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)
marbury v. madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
lemon v. kurtzman
three tests are described for deciding whether the government is improperly involved with religion
the lemon test
1. purpose of aid must be non-religious, 2. aid can neither advance nor inhibit religion, 3. aid must not excessively entangle the government with religion
marsh v. chambers
Held that government funding for chaplains was constitutional because of the "unique history" of the United States.