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BIO 315 Final
Terms in this set (114)
The leading cause of extinctions and loss of biodiversity to date
In terrestrial habitats (forests and grasslands) what accounts for most habit loss
Agriculture (most) , Urbanization, Sprawl, Logging, and Road building
In marine habitats what accounts for most habitat loss
Fishing practices (most), dredges, trawls, and dynamite fishing
In what ways does removing habitat create change?
Loss of cover, smaller patches, isolated patches, more edge habitat
After about what percentage is lost does patch isolation compound the effect of loss
What experiment tested the parameters of predator prey coexistence?
Organisms with vigility
able to respond to habitat fragmentation more readily than non vigile organisms
Is patchiness good?
Good to serve as refuge for potential prey
Where do predators gain access to patches
Small patches have a ___________ proportion of edge habitat
Edges typically have ___________ rates of predation
Mortality is _______________ in ecological traps
Forest fragmentation _______________ nest density and parasitism rate
True or False: The brown headed cowbird is a nest parasite
What does the brown headed cowbird do?
Lays eggs in another bird's nest, so the host songbird raises the chick as if were her own
True or False Patching may become genetically isolated
Animals __________________ among isolated patches
may not move
What may be used to link patches
Where has most research been done regarding regarding marine habitat fragmentation?
What are characteristics of Sea grass habitat?
-Important Nursery habitat
What are specific threats to Sea grass habitat?
Is fossil fuel use increasing?
Sea grass habitat fragmentation patterns models what other habitat?
What are the results of the Hovel and Lipcius study 2001
-Standardized sea grass complexity among patches
-Found highest survival in small, isolated patches
What are the 2 things we do when we destroy habitat
-Loss or reduction in area
-Change in configuration
True or False, the most vulnerable species and biodiversity are most affected by habitat fragmentation
What is the habitat/patch Matrix?
What is the difference between fragment and patch?
-Reduction of extent and connectivity on a shorter time scale
-Typically don't have a rich internal structure
-Sharply delineated edges
-Often contain fragment features i.e. roads
Starting from Intact, through habitat fragmentation, what is the end result?
What happens when habitat is fragmented?
-Patch size and shape
What makes habitat destruction and fragmentation hard to measure?
Time, Space, Associated impacts
What are associated impacts?
-Behavioral changes - movement and other changes in drainage habitat/ alteration
-links to invasive species
-links to human intervention i.e. hunting
What is the average size of a forest patch in the U.S. and how much of that is the internal portion of the forest
0.72 km squared, only 0.34 km squared is the internal portion
True or False, do roads fragment populations?
What are corridors?
narrow patches that connect to two large patches together
Are corridors edge habitat?
What are corridors supposed to help?
Help plants and animals disperse among patches
Regarding corridors, what was found in the 2006 Damschen study?
Showed that corridors promote biodiversity
Habitat/Fragmentation causes a rise in ______________ and a decline in _______________
Habitat/Fragmentation causes changes in what processes and what relationships?
Changes in abundance, changes in trophic relationships
True or False: Nutrient availability and cycling changes with Habitat/Fragmentation
There are no clear thresholds and a time lag, what does these problems refer to?
Predicting which species will be most vulnerable to habitat loss/fragmentation
Where are the tropical rain forests located?
Narrow belt around the equator
What characterizes tropical rain forests?
Consistent high temperatures and high rainfall (80-180 inches per year)
In a rain forest, where does rain primarily come from?
True/False In a tropical rain forest, soils are nutrient rich
True/False In a tropical rain forest there is a lack of decomposers
False (fungus, termites, ants)
Cycling of nutrients in a rain forest is fast, True or False?
The roots in a tropical rain forest are shallow or deep?
Where are the nutrients of a rain forest stored primarily?
In the plants
What terrestrial biome has the highest diversity on earth?
Tropical rain forests
Up to what percentage of all terrestrial species live in the tropical rain forest?
What are the reasons for high biodiversity in a tropical rain forest?
-High energy input
Up to how many trees per hectare in a tropical rain forest?
480 trees per hectare
How many beetle species per tree?
Are most species in a tropical rain forest rare? patchy?
How is tree patchiness maintained?
Seed dispersal, habitat suitability
What are the 3 major reasons for the destruction of the tropical rain forests?
What are minor reasons for the destruction of the tropical rain forests?
-Road building and sprawl
True or False, Brazil is a leading exporter of soybeans
Describe the characteristics of subsistence agriculture
-Few people own the land
-Farmers access rain forests from access roads
-Slash and burn
-Nutrients are rapidly depleted
How does subsistence agriculture contribute to climate change?
Carbon emissions, fewer trees, more drought
Can subsistence agriculture be sustainable?
What has been permanantely built in the Amazon that has contributed to deforestation?
What is the transoceanic highway?
Highway that links Bolivia, Peru, and Brazil
What is the controversy with the transoceanic highway?
It was planned to built through a Bolivian national park
What is a major effect of building dams in the rain forest?
Dams can cause rain forests to flood
What happened as a result of the Balbina Dam in the 1980s?
It caused the flooding of 2360 km squared of rain forest while not being able to generate enough electricity for nearby cities
Coals provides _________% of all energy consumption
Half of all coal is used in _____________
Coal is the __________________ fossil fuel
Coal is used to generate ______________________
Coal is mined by;
strip mining, subsurface mining, mountain removal
How is coal commonly extracted in the Appalacian mountains?
Mountain top method
Oil accounts for __________% of world's energy usage
Oil is the most _________________ source of energy worldwide
most commonly used
What are the effects of mountain top removal
-Forest removed, topsoil removed, rock blasted away
-Waste rock fills valleys, buries streams, pollutes water
-Human health risks
-Lung cancer, heart disease
-Acid mine drainage
What is EROI?
Energy returned on investment
What used to be EROI? what is it now?
100:1 now is 5:1
Where is the largest reserve of oil in the world?
The U.S. is _____% of the population and accounts for ________% of oil consumption
What are uses for oil
Plastics, fertilizers, fabrics, cosmetics
Have oil reserves peaked in the U.S.?
When are global oil reserves projected to peak?
Natural gas accounts for what percentage of global energy production
What are forms of natural gas? Does it burn cleaner?
Methane, propane, and butane. Yes
Why is natural gas expensive to transport?
shipped as liquid, refrigerated and then re-gasification plants are required
What decomposition generate?
carbon dioxide and methane
What percentage of methane comes from landfills?
Where is methane captured?
Where has oil extraction moved to as of late?
How does nuclear energy work?
Uranium atoms are broken apart to generate energy
True or False, steam powers turbines in nuclear energy?
For oil, what source is used last?
Polar and deep water sources
What can methane do?
-Generate electricity by powering engines
-Offset other fuel use
-Turbines generate heat + electricity
-Used as alternative fuel
-Possibly used in fuel cells
What are advantages of nuclear energy?
-Less disturbance to environment to obtain (far less mining required)
-No emissions (600,000,000) tons of carbon NOT emitted each year
-Fewer health and safety problems for workers, residents
-Less solid waste generated
What are disadvantages to nuclear energy?
-possible catastrophic accident
-Radio active waste
-Security and weapons (where to store waste? Yucca mountain)
What percentage of the U.S. is part of the national forest system?
What did Giffort Pinchot, a utilitarian, say in relation to the national forests?
Forests to be used for the greater good, but sustainably
What are forests used for?
Recreation, hunting, fishing, lodging, grazing, business
What is subsidized by the government in relation to forests?
Logging, mining, and grazing
About how much do taxpayers pay per year?
Does most timber occur on public or private land?
Is growth greater than removal today?
What are the laws governing forest use?
-The National Forest Management Act (1976) which required forests to create sustainable resource use plans
-The Roadless Rule (2000) Put 31% of national forests off limits to road construction, limits the areas that can be harvested and limits fragmentation
Do Laws governing forest use change with adminstrations?
What percentage of forests is owned by individuals? What percentage is owned by corporations?
What is the Forestry Stewardship Council?
-Rates companies based on how they harvest trees
-More pressure on companies to offer sustainable products
True or False, Brazil has greatly ________________ deforestation
What are the reasons that Brazil has greatly slowed down deforestation?
What country is #1 in increasing deforestation and #1 in decreasing deforestation?
#1 Indonesia (increasing)
#1 Mexico (decreasing)
When and what was the first National Park established in the U.S.?
in 1872, Yellowstone National Park
When was the National Park System established?
True or False in 1964 Wilderness Areas were protected
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