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Arts and Humanities
Public Speaking Final
Terms in this set (65)
Rhetorical situation (Lloyd Bitze
"a natural context of person, events, objects, relations, and an exigence which strongly invites utterance" Elements are exigence, audience, and constrains,
Persons who are capable of being influenced by discourse and of being mediators of change"
an Imperfection marked by urgency
persons, events, objects, and relations which have the power to constrain decision the action needed to modify the existence
style of delivery uses prepared notes with speech
Purposes of Public Speaking
to inform, to persuade, and to entertain.
Canons of Rhetoric
invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery.
speech that is recited from memory rather than read from cue cards or using the assistance of notes
Public presentation of the discourse
canons of rhetoric has to do with finding something to say
Scientific reasons typically moves from specific to general
Scientific reasons typically moves from general to specific
arguement with an unstated premise
excellence and virtuous character, the speaker is a good/honest person
Practical wisdom and shared values overlap between the audience's belief and the speaker's ideas
Goodwill towards the audience, positive judgement of speaker's intentions
Stephen Toulmin model
There are two triads, the first triads has three parts (claim, grounds, warrant) and pose the argument. The second triad strengthens the argument. (Backing, Qualifier, and Rebuttal)
the position that you are arguing
support for the claim
the unstated inference connecting the claim to the ground
provides additional support for the warrant
the degree of certainty attached to the claim.
exceptions to the claim
the art of persuasion
appeal to credibility, determined by the audience
appeal to emotion, feelings derived from the communication
appeal to logic, the line of aurgement
occasions where you praise or blame ceremonies, rhetoric of the present
rhetoric of the court, rhetoric of the past
rhetoric concerned with the future action, persuasion/legislation
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern.
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.
A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.
A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
The supreme time and place for commucation
opposition or contrast of words or ideas
Ex Light and dark
the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses
language that appeals to the senses (tactile, visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory)
Isocrates/Gorgas traveling teaches
wisest people and developed laws
established the right for any Athenian citizen to propose or oppose a law during assembly. also made popular legislative to review annually all laws
Defined rhetoric which is "faculty of discovering in the particular case all the available means of persuasion"
630 B.C the last tyrant and he got over thrown.
"speech is the mirror of action" his courts became the model for Romans and centuries later for England and America
reason why we use dialectal reasoning which is saying the truth to both sides rather than disproving one aurgement.
deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises (.)
Writer takes a sample of an event or population and uses those results to say that they represent the entire population
Two things are similar in one way, that must be similar in other ways
Based on indication, several signs may lead the writer to a conclusion of some sort.
Based on comparison of observations, two situations are alike in observable ways, they must be related
based on source/sources, if a source is reputable in the field of discussion, they must be right
Based on common belief, particular set of beliefs that most hold to be valuable justify an action.
a flaw in the reasoning of an arguement
Misrepresentation of one's own claim of one's opponent
Directed to the Person
Ad hominem fallacy
Faulty Assumption fallacy
Features a misattribution of cause, like you saw a black cat so you failed your test
Case Presentation fallacy
Misrepresentation of one's own claim or the claim of one's opponent
Against the person, an attack is made against the person making the claim and this attack is taken as evidence against the claim
Occurs when you take someone's actual position, created a weaker, usually exaggerated verison and then attack this verison as it was their orginal position
Over simplification of an argument to only two options, with the additional assumption that one of the options is poor/wrong
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