Road to Revolution Study Guide
Terms in this set (74)
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
a fighting force that is maintained in times of peace as well as times of war.
Income (Britain needed money)
writ of assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled. allowed British officers to do all this. (George Grenville)
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling.
Halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court (1764)
an act passed by the British parliment in 1765 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance. (1765)
refusal to buy products from Britain
An act signed by 200 merchants pledging not ro buy any British goods until Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, colonial merchants and planters signed these agreements to promise to stop importing goods taxed by the townshend acts
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
1767. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea.
Daughters of Liberty
This orginization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
British-imposed tax directly on the colonies that was intended to raise revenue.
John Hancock and The Liberty
A man who had a ship named the _________ who was very good at smuggling.
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War
"taxation without representation"
forcing people to pay taxes when they have no say in the making of the laws
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799) Give me liberty or give me death!
a formal of expression of opinion
stuffed figures that colonists made look like unpopular tax collectors that they would burn
cancel (ex.stamp act)
to bring in from foreign markets (Britain)
open defiance and opposition, sometimes armed, to a person or thing in authority
Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
committee of correspondence
colonial organization organized in 1770 to spread news of Great Britain's actions and acts throughout the colonies
Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party (1773)
East India Company
an English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
This act officially banned town meetings, the former forum for political debate, from occurring more than once annually.
Administration of Justice Act
1774-Allowed a soldier or official accused of a crime to be tried outside the colony in British courts (Intolerable Act)
An act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
After the French and Indian War, the English had claim the Quebec Region, a French speaking colony. Because of the cultural difference, English had a dilemma on what to do with the region, passed in 1774, allow the French Colonist to go back freely to their own customs. The colonists have the right to have access to the Catholic religion freely. Also, it extended to Quebec Region north and south into the Ohio River Valley. This act created more tension between the colonists and the British which lead to the American Revolution.
A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British
civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
1st continental congress
On September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
1. Asked colonists to raise armed militia; and 2. Economic sanctions against Great Britain
first "battles"; meant to get suppies from militia, but shots exchanged between minutemen and the british as the british continued to concord; Americans ambushed british, killing 300
Paul Revere and William Dawes
riders who warned the militia (Minutemen) of British designs on the town of Concord
The British were trying to secure this area, it is an example of an obstacle in the battle. Where the colonists fought the British in the first battle of the war.
A British general of Massachusetts who ordered the stored weapons seized by the Sons of Liberty to be taken back & the leaders arrested
"shot heard round the world"
The first shot fired of the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord when a group of armed minutemen confronted a British column.
patriots led by Ethan Allen surprise an outpost on Lake Champlain and capture cannon for the Americans
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. . He is the most famous traitor in American history.
a soldier of the American Revolution whose troops helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British (1738-1789) Leader of Green Mountain boys
Green Mountain boys
Vermont colonial militia led by Ethan Allen that made a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga
a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Battle between the Americans & British that took place after the Battle of North Bridge. This was the last battle before the American's Olive Branch Petition, which was the last attempt to avoid war with Britain.
" until you see the whites of their eyes
Background: William Prescott, American Revelution; at the battle of bunker hill Prescott told his men not not to fire until they could see the whites of the enemies eyes
Means: wait until you have a chance of success
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
2nd Continental Congress
Congress of American leaders which first met in 1775, declared independence in 1776, and helped lead the United States during the Revolution
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence.
Philadelphia lawyer; reacted to "external" duties of Townshend Acts in Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer with argument that external taxation was legal only when designed to regulate trade, not raise a revenue
The official army of the colonies, created by second continental congress and led by George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
Richard Henry Lee
leader of the American Revolution who proposed the resolution calling for independence of the American colonies (1732-1794)
June 7, 1776, in the second continental congress, Richard Henry Lee proposes Independence for the American Colonies
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Committee of 5
a group of men that wrote the Declaration of Independence. Consisted of: Thomas Jefferson, Roger Sherman, Robert Livington, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
a statement in a constitution that sets forth the goals and purposes of government
Declaration of Natural Rights
This section lists the rights of the citizens. The Declaration referred to these natural rights as unalienable rights (right that cannot be surrendered).
List of Grievences
is about the complaints the colonists argued about against the King George and his government
Resolution of Independence
This section declares that the colonies are "free and independent states" with the full power to make war, form alliances, and to trade with other countries.
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