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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (47)
geography in Rome
-strategic location 15 miles inland
-built among 7 hills along a bend in the Tiber River
-fertile soil was important to agriculture
-unity possible through Indian Peninsula
who were the first Romans?
Etruscans, Latins, and Greeks
why did Rome form a republic?
after the rule of the harsh king Tarquin the Proud, the Romans promised they would never be ruled by a king again
wealthy landowners who held most of the power
common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population
-elected representatives in the assembly of the plebeians
-protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials
influence of the Etruscans
writing, religion, the Arch
republican government in Roman Republic
2 councils, Senate, and tribal assembly
executives of Rome and leaders of army
-representative body for Rome
plebeians who made laws for common people
-written law of code
-provided political and social rights for the plebeians
what caused the first Punic War?
-other large and powerful cities interfered with Roman access to the Mediterranean
-Carthage was one of these, and rose to power and put direct opposition on Rome
First Punic War
-fought for the control of Sicily and western Mediterranean
-ended in defeat of Carthage
Second Punic War
-Carthaginian general named Hannibal wanted to avenge the defeat of Carthage in the earlier war
-got large army and wanted to surprise Rome in an attack
-Romans managed to keep control of Rome
-Scipio, who matched Hannibal's boldness, made a plan that ended in defeating Hannibal
Third Punic War
-Rome laid siege to Carthage
-set afire and captured all their people and made them slaves
-territory was made a Roman province
what was the grand outcome of all the Punic Wars?
gave Rome dominance over the western Mediterranean
problems in the Roman Republic after the Punic War
-divide between rich and poor had grown
-slaves being used to work the land
-small farmers had no jobs when land was consolidated under large estates
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
-first reform leaders
-the poor should be given grain and small plots of free land
-clubbed to death by Senate because they were worried that the poor would favor them too much and they would have too much power
how did the First Triumvirate end?
Crassus was killed in battle
what did Pompey order Caesar to do?
Pompey talked the Senate into demanding that Caesar returns to Rome without his army, who is very loyal to Caesar
why did Pompey order Caesar to come back to Rome?
Pompey was jealous of the success Caesar was having in Gaul and of his growing popularity
what did Caesar decide to do when Pompey orders him back to Rome?
he brings his army back to Rome
what river did Caesar cross?
the Rubicon River (river in Northern Italy)
what did the crossing of the Rubicon mean?
-tradition/law said that soldiers had to disband before crossing
-if you crossed with soldiers, you were declaring war
-once crossed you cannot go back
what Caesar did with his power
-granted citizenship to people in the provinces
-created jobs for the poor
-started colonies for landless
between which people did the civil war break out? who won?
Antony and Octavian (won)
what happens to Octavian's opponents after he wins the civil war?
Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide
first official emperor of Rome
-republic ended, began a new period in Rome called Pax Romana
-time of peace and prosper in Rome
how were the Romans threatened by Christianity?
-refused to view the emperor as a God
-spoke out against polytheism
what were Martyrs?
people who refused to renounce beliefs and often put to death because they wouldn't renounce their Christian beliefs
why did Christianity appeal so much?
-life in the Roman Empire was more difficult starting in 200s
-people sought comfort of a living God
-accepted all and offered charity
-promised salvation (better life) after death
who and when does this person accept Christianity?
Constantine in 312 AD
who banned former Roman (pagan) worship?
Theodosius in 391 AD
who long did it take for Christianity to spread all through the Roman Empire?
what caused the fall of Rome?
economy and military/political turmoil
how does the economy cause the fall of Rome?
-taxes no longer support gov't building
-famine and disease
-farmers forced to sell land
how does the military/political turmoil cause the fall of Rome?
-soldiers became less discipline
-loss of patriotism, apathetic citizens
what does the emperor Diocletian do to Rome?
he divided Rome in order to save it (thought that Rome got to big to govern)
-greek speaking go to east, latin speaking go to west
-put freedom second to security and defense, rules with iron fist
-civil war after Diocletian retires
who will crumble- east or west?
west will crumble; east (Byzantium) will survive for another 1,000 years
what does the emperor Constantine do to Rome?
moves capital to Constantinople (east)
who invades Rome and when?
Germanic tribes invade in 410 AD
when is the last Roman Empire ousted?
which part descends into a period of anarchy?
what part survives?
Byzantine Empire in the east survives
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