Vocabulary Terms (CIS)
Terms in this set (41)
part of a computer processor (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words.
binary number system
uses just two digits, 1 and 0, and is used for representing values in computers
short for binary digit, it is a digit that can be 1 or 0. A bit is the smallest unit of information that a digital electronics device can manipulate.
a subsystem on the motherboard that transfers data among system components.
group of eight bits
the representation of characters on the keyboard with bytes, most having roots in the earliest standard ASCII
central processing unit (CPU)
is a group of circuits that perform the processing in a computer, typically in one integrated circuit called a microprocessor.`
common type system (CTS)
is a standard that specifies how type definitions and specific values of types are represented in computer memory.
computer hard disk drive (HDD)
the mechanism that controls the positioning, reading and writing of the hard disk, which furnishes data storage.
describes a computer's architecture in terms of hardware and software.
takes advantage of the fact that digitization standardizes all types of data to 1s and 0s to create devices that combine the functionality of several digital electronics devices.
also called digitizing, is the process of transforming information, such as text, images, and sounds, into digital representation (1s and 0s) so that it can be stored and processed by computers.
refers to a computer's capacity to interface with a variety of external devices such as I/O devices, network devices, and storage devices by connecting through ports, slots, and wireless technologies.
general-purpose input device
is designed to be used for a wide variety of computing activities.
refers to the tangible parts of a computer and includes support for processing, storage, input and output
the manner in which data is received into a computer system, and the manner in which information and the results of processing are provided to the user.
integrated access device (IAD)
a networking device that connects users to a wide area network or the Internet.
integrated circuit (processor or chip)
connects tiny transistors and other electronics components on a thin piece of semiconductive material such as silicon.
light emitting diode (LED)
more energy efficient and thinner than LCDs with better color accuracy
liquid crystal display (LCD)
flat panel, light and energy efficient
provides a CPU with an orderly method of processing software instructions
a storage technology that uses the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles rather than electric charges to store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM.
states that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years.
combines multiple CPUs on one chip to share the workload and speed up processing. An example of this would be a dual-core, triple-core, or quad-core processor.
processing that occurs with more than one processing unit to increase productivity and performance.
one laptop per child project (OLPC)
an initiative aimed at providing inexpensive laptop computers to children in the developing world as a means of bridging the digital divide.
store bits by using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective disc. Examples of this would be CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs.
organic light emitting diode (OLED)
use organic compounds that produce light - thin, bright and colorful displays
carries out the instructions provided by software using specially designed circuitry and a well-defined routine to transform data into useful outputs.
random access memory (RAM)
temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.
read-only memory (ROM)
provides permanent storage for data and instructions that do not change, such as firmware — programs and data from the computer manufacturer, including the boot process used to start the computer.
a powerful computer that utilizes many processors to provide services to users simultaneously over a network.
small form factor (SFF)
a computer form factor designed to minimize the volume of a desktop computer.
solid state storage
a device stores data using solid-state electronics such as transistors, and unlike magnetic and optical media, does not require any moving mechanical parts.
solid state drive (SSD)
a type of mass storage device similar to a hard disk drive. It supports reading and writing data and maintains stored data in a permanent state even without power.
the most powerful type of computer, often utilizing thousands or even tens of thousands of processors to solve the world's most difficult problems.
maintaining common files and data across multiple devices so all copies are up to date.
an electronics component typically composed of silicon that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.
the representation of values with numbers.
video card (graphics card)
combines video processing and storage onto an expansion card, or integrates them onto the motherboard to manage video images for display.
sometimes called video RAM, VRAM, or graphics memory, is used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video and graphics images.